Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
The change over time in genetic composition of a population.
Concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms.
-Remains or traces of organisms from the past.
-Preserved evidence of previously living things.
-2nd evedience of evolution.
The study of fossils
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata conrresponded in time to a catastrophe.
Gradualism (James Hutton)
The idea that profound change can take place through the comulative effect of slow but continuous processes.
the contrast to catastrophism
Uniformitarianism (Charles Lyell)
The idea that geologic processes have not changed throughout Earth's history.
Charles Lyell Idea
The evolution of traits within a species. Change confined to a single gene pools.
The evolution of new species.
Charles Darwin

*Natural Selection and Adaptation.
-On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
-2 main idea = 1, that evolution explains life's unity and diversity 2, that natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution.
-Similarities & differences b/ween species were determined more by relative location of species then by simply how well each species was suited to their env.
-Finches of the Galapagos Islands.
-Hypothesis of "use and disuse"
-Inheritance of "acquired" characteristics
Thomas Malthus
"Populations can increase faster then their resources"
The study of the Geographic distribution of species/organisms.
Adaptive Radiation
The numorous species arising from a common ancestor, each adapted by N.S. to a distinct environment or life style.
Convergent evolution
Independent evolution of similar life forms as a result of "adaptation" to similar niches w/similar selective pressures.
Comparative Anatomy
Comparing anatomies of different aorganisms supports the idea of descent w/modification from a common sncestor.
Having similarity resulting from a common ancestor.
Homologous structures
Structures in different species that're similar because of common ancestry.
Vestigial structures
Structures w/little or no function that're remnants of once-functional ancestral structures. (ie) appendix, tail bone, and goosebumps in humans.




Evolution History
Artificial Selection
Selective breeding of domesticated animals/plants to encourage the occurence of desirable traits.
what is Darwin's Dilemma?
-Evolution requires variation, but natural selection eliminates variation.
-During Dawins day, the discrete nature of hereditary units was not understood.
Population genetics
The study of how populations change genetically over time
A group of interbreeding organisms.
Hardy and Weinberg
-No net change in genetic variation over time as long as these equilibrium are maintained.(the population is large, there is no mutation, no immigration or emigration, mating is random, all indivitual survive & reproduce equally well)ie. no natural selection
-(p^2 + 2pq + q^2 =1)
-p + q = 1
A Population
-has freq. of genotypes
-has freq. of alleles
Gene Pool
All the alleles in a population.
Fixed Population
When only 1 allele is present in a population (all individuals are homozygous)
Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.
Genetic drift
Random unpredictable fluctuatetion on how allele freq. changes from 1 generation to the next.
Effect of a temporary period of small population size.
Bottleneck Effect
A sudden chanfe in the environment, ie.when natural disaster such as fire or fllod striks.
Founder Effect
When a small # of individuals breake off from main population to colonize a new habit.
Gene Flow
Genetic addition to &/or removal from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes.
Gene Flow
-Migration between populations can change their allele freq.
-Exchange of alleles among population changes gene freq.
-Reduces genetic differences between populations.
Mating between closely related (genetically) individuals.
Asortative Mating
Individuals mate with partners that're like themselves for certain traits.
Non-random mating
Effects the freq. of genotypes in a population, but dose not change allele freq.
Study of the interactions between organisims and their environment.
Abiotic Component
Nonliving chemical and physical factors.
Biotic Component
Living components; all organisms that are part of the environment.
Organismal ecology
Subdivided into Behavioral, physiological, morphological, and life ecology which deals w/how an organism's structer,physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by the env.
Population ecology
Concetrates mainly on factors that affect how many individuals of a paeticular specise live in an area.
Community ecology
The interactions that occur between populations of different species that live in the same area.
Sum of all the biotic community and the abiotic environment.
The sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
Study of vital statistics of populations and how they change over time.
Pop'n. Size
Pop'n. Density
# of individuals
#/area or volume
Pattern of distribution or spacing among individuals.

results of pop./envi. interaction.

results of interaction among individuals(eg.territoriality)

implies little interaction affecting dispersion.
A Life Table
Age-specific summaries of the survival pattern of a pop'n.
(A tool used to predict future pop'n. structure).
A group of individuals of the same age, from birth until all are dead.
Survivorship curve
A plot of the # of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age.
-big bang reproduction.
-reproduce once & die
-usually many offspring; low chance of survival. eg. pecific samons.
-often an adaptive response to a varible environment.
-repeated reproduction throughout life
-usually fewer offspring
-higher survival rate.(mammals).
-an adptation to more stable environments.
Carrying Capacity (K)
The maximum pop'n. size that a particular env. can support.
Density Dependent
An characteristic that varies according to an increase in pop'n. density.

-Resource Limitaion
-competition for food, nutrients, space, nesting site
-Density Dependant
-of toxic wastes
INTRINSIC REGULATING FACTORS (self vs.envir. regulation)

-Crowding effect
-hormonal changes delay sexual reproduction &/or shrink reproductive organs.
-depression of immune system
-increased aggressive behavio
-eating of young by parents.
Weather extremes
-Affect pop'n. size but not in proportion to density.
-Harder to predict changes in pon'n. size due to these factors.
-Periodic catastrophes, disrurbances
-Largely unknown factors, specific for each organism.
All the living organisms that live in the same area.
Species Richness
Total # of different species in the community
Relative Abundance
The proportion each species represent of the total community.
Mutualism: (+/+)
-both parties benefit
-ie. plants & their pollinator
Commensalism (+/0)
-1 species benefits w/out affecting the other species.
-ie. cattle egrets & cows
-sea anemones & hermit crabs
Predation (+/-)


-when animals eat plants
-when one organism lives on or in a host
-when an organism lays eggs in or on the host.
-disease causing organisms
Cryptic coloration
Batesian Mimicry
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species hat is poisonous or harmful to predators.
Mullerian Mimicry
A mutual mimicry by 2 unpalatable species.