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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
units of information about inherited traits that can be passed from one generation to the next
different forms of a gene
two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell that are alike in length, shape and genes
homologous chromosomes
when homologous chromosomes exchange corresponding segments
crossing over
name for combinations of alleles in gametes, then in offspring, that were not present in a parent
genetic recombination
pairs of chromosomes that are the same in males and females
pairs of chromosomes that govenr a new individual's gender
sex chromosomes
a diagram that can help answer questions about a person's chromosomes.
chemical that arrests mitosis at metaphase during a karyotype
most or all of the genes on one of a female's x chromosomes are "switched off" soon after the first cleavages of the zygote
x inactivation
condition occurring in females in whom mutated gene that blocks the formation of sweat glands
anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
genetic family history
pedigree chart
deviation from the average
causes mild to severe medical problems
a set of symptoms that characterize a disorder
condition resulting from abnormal buildup of the amino acid phynylalanine
phynylketonuria (PKU)
condition in which an individual lacks hexosaminidase A, the enzyme required for the metahbolism of sphingolipids that are espciall y abundant in the plasma membrane of cells in nerves and the brain, causes loss of motor functions, deabness blindness , mental retardation and often death in early childhood
Tay-Sachs disease
diesase in which the basal nuclei of the brain degenerate, homozygootes die as embryos
Huntington disease
condition results in weakened connective tissues in many body structures including aorta, often results in death due to a blood vessel rupture before age 50
Marfan syndrome
condition in which cartilage elementos of bones do not form properly, hymozygoutes are usually stillborn, adults are usually under 4'4" tall
condition in which dangerously elevated blood cholesterol
familial hypercholesterolemia
gene sequences that are repeated
part of one chromosome exchanges places with a corresponding part of another chromosome that is not its homologous partner
loss of a gene that may be caused spontaneously, or by a virus or by irradiation or some other environmental factor including but not limited to chemical assaults
disorder in which the deletion of human chromosome 5 leads to mental retardation and an abnormally shaped larynx resulting in a cat cry
a change in one or more of the nucleotides that make up a particular gene
condition in which the embryo doesn't have an exact multiple of the normal haploid set of 23 chromosomes
a ______ embryo has three, four or more sets of the normal haploid set of 23 chromosomes. All but 1 % die before birth and the rare newborns die soon afterward
one or more pairs of chromosomes fail to separate during mitosis or meiosis, resulting in too many or too few crhomosomes
when fertilization brings together a geamete with an extra chromosome resulting in 3 of one type of chromosome
when fertilzation results in the agamete missing a chromosome the the result is ______
When a nondisjunction has reduced the chromosome number to 45, resulting in individuals who are missing an x chromosome
Turner syndrome
How do X and Y chromosomes differ?
X chromosomes are female and Y chromosomes are male
What do we mean when we say someone is a carrier of a genetic trait
they have the ability to pass on the trait as they carry the recessive allele, but due to they are not affected by it.
What evidence indicates that a trait is coded by a dominant allele on an autosome?
the trait usually appears in each generation
Explain the difference in an X-linked trait and a sex influenced trait
X-linked genetic disorders occurwhen the mutated gene is on the X chromosome, typically affecting males who inherit only one X chromosome, Sex-influenced traits appear more frequently in one sex.
Give two examples of phenotypes that can result from nondisjunction
Turner Syndrome
XXX females
Klinfelter syndrome
xyy condition
Genetic disorders can be caused by _____.
A gene mutations
B. changes in chromosome structure
C. changes in chromosome number
D. all of the above
______ segregate during _____.
A Homologues; mitosis
B. Genes on one chromosome; meiosis
C. Homologues; meiosis
D. Genes on one chromosome; mitosis
The alleles of a gene on homologous chromosomes end up in separate _____.
A. body cells
B. gametes
C. nonhomologous chromosomes
D. offspring
E. both B and D are possible
Genes on the same chromosome tend to remain together during _____ and end up in the same _____.
A. mitosis; body cell
B. mitosis; gamete
C. meiosis; body cell
D. meiosis; gamete
E. both A and D
The probability of a crossover occurring between two genes on the same chromosome is _____.
A. unrelated to the distance between them
B. increased if they are closer together on the chromosome
C. increased if they are farther apart on the chromosome
D. zero
A chromosome's structure can be altered by _____.
A. deletions
B. duplications
C. translocations
D. all of the above
Nondisjunction can be caused by _____.
A. crossing over in meiosis
B. segregation in meiosis
C. failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
D. multiple independent assortments
A gamete affected by nondisjunction could have _____.
A. a change from the normal chromosome number
B. one extra or one missing chromosome
C. the potential for a genetic disorder
D. all of the above.
A person who is a carrier for a genetic trait _____.
A. is heterozygous for a dominant trait
B. is heterozygous for a recessive trait
C. is homozygous for a recessive trait
D. could be either A or B but not C.