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31 Cards in this Set

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What is the primary function of backbone?
To protect the spinal cord
Two Zones of Spinal Cord
Gray matter
White matter
Gray matter
inner layer

contains interneurons and cell bodies of motor neurons
White Matter
outer layer

contains axons and dendrites of nerve cells
Two systems of spinal cord
Parasympathetic - after fight or flight

Sympatheitc - fight or flight response
What part of the brain triggers fight or flight?
Hypothalmus
4 characteristics of Kindom Plantae
autotrophic
multicellular
cell walls (cellulose)
most reproduce sexually
4 Groups of Plants
nonvascular
seedless vascular plants
gymnosperms
angiosperms
Nonvascular
no vascular tissues to thransport food or water

examples: mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Nonvascular: Moss Characteristics
Nonvascular

h2o reaches leaves via diffusion (diffusion is limited by distance) therefore mosses are short

need H2O to reproduce
Seedless vascular plants
contain xylem and phloem

example: ferns
Seedless vascular plants: Fern Characteristics
vascular = height = more sun

need H2O to reproduce
2 types of vascular tissues and their function
Xylem: transports H2O

Phloem: transports sugars
Gymnosperms
xylem, phloem, naked seeds

no protection for seeds

examples: conifers, cycads
Angiosperms
xylem, phloem, seeds, flowers

protected seeds by fruits

examples: flowering plants

flowers are genitals of plants

**most sucessful**
List plant types in order of evolution`
nonvascular
seedless vascular
gymnosperms
angiosperms
Haplodiplontic
multicellular in both stages of life cycle
2 stages of Plant life cycle
Gametophyte (haploid)
Sporophyte (diploid)
2 processes that border stages of life cycle
sporophyte -> meiosis -> gametophyte

gametophyte -> fertilization -> sporophyte
Spore
Spores result from the meiosis stage of life cycle but are not reproductive cells until they undergo mitosis.
Moss Life Cycle (nonvascular)
Haploid is dominant

need H2O

zygote develops in archegonium
spoorophyte bursts releasing haploid spores
Antheridium
Male organ of plant which produces sperm.
Achegonium
Female organ of plant which produces the egg.
Fern Life Cycle (seedless vascular)
Sorus forms on leaf, then undergoes meiosis producing spores. Spores undergo mitosis.

Archgonium is heart shaped.

Fertilization takes place in archegonium (gametophyte stage) and the fern grows from it.
Sori
diploid converted to haploid spores which bursts to release the spores that then go through mitosis
Rhizome
undergrown root
Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Male (pollen) cone
Male (pollen) cone - sperm use wind to spread and are contained in pollen sacs

needs no H2O to reproduce!!!
Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Female (ovulate) cone
plant embryo forms here

a seed comes from female cone which is a protective coating around embryo
Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Pollination
pollen stick to female cone

needs no H2O to reproduce!!!
Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Embryo fertilization
takes 15 months after pollination for fertilization to occur

embryos stay within cone until environmental conditions are peak for growth
Angiosperm Life Cycle
diploid dominate - main body is diploid

flowers produce haploid sperm (anther) and egg (ovary)