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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
taxonomy
the science of classifying living things
Proper form for Scientific Name
italics
genus capitalized
species not capitalized
Why are common names bad?
vary based on culture/population
Taxonomic Hierarchy (general)
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Taxonomic Hierarchy (Humans)
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Anamalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primata
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: sapiens
Human Domain
Eukarya
Human Kingdom
Anamalia
Human Phylum
Chordata
Human Class
Mammalia
Human Order
Primata
Human Family
Hominidae
Human Genus
Homo
Human Species
sapiens
Systematics
reconstruction and study of evolutionary relationships
Phylongenies
evolutionary trees used to demonstrate the relatedness of groups of organisms
Cladistics
a type of phylogeny based on similarities derived from a common ancestor
The 3 Domains
Eukarya
Bacteria
Archaea
The 4 Kingdoms
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Anamalia
The 9 Phyla of Anamalia
Porifera
Cnidaria
Playhelminthes
Nematoda
Annelida
Arthropoda
Mollusca
Echinodermata
Chordata
The 7 Classes of the subphylum Verbrata
Agnatha
Chondrichthyes
Osterchthyes
Amphibia
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia
The 3 Major Characteristics of the Phylum Chordata
notochord
dorsal, hollow nerve tube
pharyngeal gill slits
Anthropocentric
Classification is a human construct and is therefore biased
Subjective
Even scientists do not agree on clssification schemes
Approaches to Classifying Organisms
2 Kingdoms (plantae, anamalia)
- Linnaeus

5 Kingdoms
- Whittaker

6 Kingdoms (Archaebacteria)
- Woese

3 Domains
- Woese
Order of Domains in Evolution
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
The Domain Archaea
Cell walls w/o peptidoglycan
Unique lipid structure
Prokaryotic
Most inhabit extreme conditions
3 Categories of Archaea
Methanogens - obtain energy via reducing CO2 into methane (anaerobic)

Extremophiles - thermophiles (likek heat), halophiles (like salt), pH-tolerant

Nonextreme - inhabit normal environments
The Domain Bacteria
Most abundant organisms on Earth
Cell walls w/ peptidoglycan (antibiotics break down peptidoglycan killing bacteria)
Prokaryotic
Functions of Bacteria
Photosynthesis - cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

Nitrogen Fixations - breaks N2 from atmosphere into useful organic containing N

Disease - population control
The Domain Eukarya
Have true nucleus and organelles
Four Kingdoms
Name the 4 Primary Tissues
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nerve
Epithelial Tissue is derived from:
Ectoderm
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
Lining for all body surfaces
- selective barrier
Stucture of Epithelial Tissue
Cells are tightly bound together
Diffusion only to cross
Blood vessels do not penetrate
Very regenerative
Two Classes of Epithelial Tissue
Simple - 1 layer
Stratified - 2 or more layers
Three shapes of Epithelial Tissue
Squamous - flattened cube
Cuboidal - cube
Columnar - pillar
Simple Squamous
- Lining of lungs, capillary walls, and blood vessels
- Hight level of diffusion
Simple Cuboidal
- Lining of glands and kidney, covering of ovaries
- Function = secretion & absorption
Simple Columnar
- Surface lining of stomach, intestines and parts of respiratory
- Function - secretion, absorption, protection
Stratified Squamous
- Outer layer of skin, lining of mouth
- Provides tough protection
Psuedostratified Columnar
- Lining of respiratory tract
- Function - secrets mucus, protection
Connective Tissue
Derived from mesoderm
Cells spaced widely apart therefore contains abundant extracellular material -MATRIX-
5 Types of Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Dense Connective Tissue
Cartilage
Bone
Blood
Matrix (Connective Tissue)
extracellular material which is not alive
Loose Connective Tissue Summary
- Beneath skin, between organs
- support, isulation, food storage and nurishment for epithelium
- Fibroblasts, macrophage, fat cells
fibroblasts
synthesizes protein fibers
macrophage
white cells, consumes stuff
Dense Connective Tissue Summary
- Tendons, muscles, kidney, liver, dermis of skin
- Flexible strong connections
Cartilage Summary
- Spinal discs, knees (joints), ear, nose, trachael rings
- flexible support, shock absorption, reduction of friction
Bone Summary
- Most of skeleton
- Protects, support for muscle attachment
- Osteocytes
Blood
- Circulatory system
- Communication between organs
Blood Summary
Located in Circulatory system
Functions: immune system and communication
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes
Cartilage
Srtong, flexible connective tissue composed of shondroitin and collagen fibers
**No blood vessels in cartilage matrix so use diffusion to survive
Chondrocytes
cells that live within lacunae (spaces)
Bone
Special form of connective tissue that contains living cells & an extracellular matrix:

Contains collagen fibers (for flexibility) and calcium phosphate (for strength)

Cells: Osteoblasts secrete the matrix; can develop into osteocytes (in lacunae)

Compact bone- on outside
Spongy bone- on inside (contains marrow)
canaliculi
Connect neighboring osteocytes by cytoplasmic extensions
Haversian Canals
contain nerves & blood vessels
Muscle Tissue
Responsible for movement
Muscle cells: contain many filaments
Actin & myosin
Three types of muscle tissue
Smooth muscle
Skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle
Two types of filament
Actin - Thin filament
Myosin - Thick filament
Smooth Muscle
Location: Walls of blood vessels, stomach, intestines
Function: involuntary contractions
Skeletal Muscle
Location: Voluntary muscles
Function: voluntary movement
Cardiac Muscle
Location: Walls of Heart
Function: highly interconnected cells for rapid contraction
2 Types of Nerve Cell Tissues
Neuroglia: cells that support & insulate neurons

Neurons: conduct electrochemical impulses
Most consist of a cell body (that contains the nuceus), dendrites (thin cytoplasmic extensions), and axon (that can be very long)
Three types of neurons
Sensory
Motor
Association
Sensory Neurons
Location: Eyes, Ears, Skin
Function: collects info about body's external condition and sends to central nervous system
Motor Neurons
Location: brain and spinal cord
Function: stimulates muscles and glands
Association neurons (interneurons)
Location: brain and spinal cord
Function: integrates information
Types of Skeletons
Hydrostatic: fluid-filled cavity encircled by muscle
Earthworms, jellyfish

Exoskeleton: on outside of body (Arthropods)
For growth, organism must molt
Organisms limited in size

Endoskeleton: internal (vertebrates & echinoderms)
Composed of cartilage or bone
Muscle Contraction
Skeletal muscle contains many
Muscle fibers (muscle cells), which are bundles of
Myofibrils, which are bundles of Myofilaments (thick or thin)

Muscle contracts when myofibrils contract & shorten

Myofilamanets do not shorten
Thin filaments (composed of actin molecules in a double-helix) slide & overlap the thick filaments (composed of myosin molecules)
Cross-Bridges
Form between myosin heads of thick filaments & actin molecules of thin filamemts
Cross-bridges are formed using ATP and cause the muscle to “contract” (pulling of thin filaments)
Muscle will remain contracted (fibers “locked”) unless more ATP is used to break the cross-bridge
Rigor mortis – dead cells have no ATP to break cross-bridges
Control of Muscle Contraction
Calcium Ions (Ca2+)
When Ca2+ concentration inside muscle cell is low, tropomyosin inhibits cross-bridge formation
Muscle is relaxed
When Ca2+ concentration is raised, it binds to troponin, which causes a conformational change in tropomyosin (and actin filaments)
This exposes myosin-binding sites on actin, allowing cross bridges to form (muscle contracts)
Stimulation by neurons
electrochemical signals cause neurons to release neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine)
This causes sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle cell to release Ca2+, which binds to troponin . . .
sarcoplasmic reticulum
sores or releases Ca+2
2 Types of Digestive Systems
Gastrovascular Cavity
One-Way Tract
Gastrovascular Cavity
An incomplete digestive system

Sac with only one opening for both food & wastes
Inefficient because some food is lost when waste is expelled

Cnidarians, planaria
One-Way Tract
A complete digestive system

Has both a mouth and an anus

Allows for specialization of different regions along the tract

Evolution of head: cyphilization

Nematodes, . . . . .
Digestion in mouth
Digestion Begins in the Mouth

Teeth break food into smaller pieces

Saliva moistens & lubricates food for easier swallowing

Saliva also contains the enzyme amylase, which breaks down polysaccharides
Teeth
Molars - grinding
Canines - tearing
Incisors - cutting

Teeth dictate diet
(herbivores have more molars)
Esophagus
Connects mouth to stomach
Upper 1/3: voluntary muscle (swallowing)
Lower 2/3: involuntary muscle
Peristalsis
rhythmic waves of muscular contraction that move food toward stomach

enables vertebrates to swallow upside down
Sphincter
ring of muscle at bottom of esophagus to prevent backward flow of food
Stomach
Function: storage & some digestion
Inner surface is highly convoluted- folded up when empty, but expanded when full
Surrounded by smooth muscle for churning
2 Types of Stomach Cells
Parietal cells: secrete HCl
Low pH denatures proteins & kills bacteria

Chief cells: secrete pepsinogen ( for digestion of proteins)

**Epithelial cells protected by alkaline mucus
Pyloric sphincter
between stomach & small int.
Small Intestine
Function: digestion & absorption
Lined with smooth muscle
Highly convoluted (villi, microvilli)
Increased surface area (humans 300 sq. meters)

Digestive enzymes: some are membrane proteins; others enter from the pancreas

Glucose & amino acids are absorbed & enter the blood (hepatic vein)

Fatty acids are absorbed & enter the lymphatic system
Large Intestine
Function: to concentrate waste material ABSORBS WATER

No digestion; smaller in length & surface area

Many bacterial colonies: form gas by fermentation of fiber & other undigestable material

Lined with smooth muscle

Large intestine→rectum→anus

2 sphincters control passage of feces to anus

One involuntary; one voluntary
Cecum
pouch where Si and Li meet
Ruminants
(cows, deer) have a 4-chambered stomach & regurgitate their food

other organisms use bacteria (symbiotic relationship)
Four Chambered Stomachof Ruminants
Rumen (fermentation of cellulose)

Reticulum

Omasum

Abomasum (= human stomach)
Variations in Digestive Systems
Most animals cannot digest cellulose
Symbiotic relationship with bacteria

Ruminants (cows, deer) have a 4-chambered stomach & regurgitate their food

Horses, rodents, & rabbits have an enlarged cecum (between small & large int.) where bacteria digest cellulose

Coprophagy: eat their own feces
Pancreas
synthesizes enzymes that digest:
Proteins (trypsin, chymotrypsin)
Carbohydrates (amylase)
Fats (lipase)

Pancreatic juice also contains
Bicarbonate (neutralizes acid)
Hormones to control blood glucose level(insulin)
Liver & Gallbladder
Bile is produced in the liver & stored in gallbladder
Bile salts aid in digestion of fats