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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 or more atoms that are held together by a chemical bond
2 or more different atoms held together by a chemical bond * All compounds can be molecules but not all molecules can be compounds*
Mixtures of how matter is combined
mixtures consist of 2 or more intermixed substances, natural or synethic
1. Characteristics of Mixtures
a. Homogenous mixtures/compounds
a. same content no matter where in the mixture the sample is taken from
b. Heterogenous mixtures/compounds
b. consists of two different content or makeup depending on where the sample is taken from
2. Solutions
are homogenous mixtures, can be solid, liquid or gas
a. solvent
dissolving agent for the solution, constitutes greatest volume ex. water
b. solute
substance that is dissolved in the solvent
- molarity (M)/Moles per liter
based on molecular weight, weigh out sample in grams and add water to get liter
- avogadros number
equals 6.02 x 10'23 solute particles, one molar solution
3. colloids aka emulsion
heterogenous mixtures can be transulcent to a milky color and reflect light
a. solutes are
very large, tend to stay suspended
b. have ability of sol-gel transformation
ability to change from solid to liquid and back again ex. jello, cell cytoplasm, blood plasma
4. Suspensions (heterogenous)
a. has large solute particles
that do settle out or parcipitate to bottom ex. blood cells in solution
C. Distinguishing Mixtures from Compounds
*mixtures are not connected by chemical bonds but compounds are*
a. mixtures can be easily separated, evaported, or filtrated; compounds you have to break chemical bonds to separate
b. compounds are homogenous only, mixtures can be both
IV. Chemical Bonds
equals the electron energy found b/w 2 atoms
1. electron shells
regions of space that conseculatively the nucleus of the atom; they give us energy levels
2. energy levels
varies on which shell the electron occupies and its distance from the nucleus; the further away the greater the potential energy the more interactive the electron will be the higher the energy level
3. filling of electron shells
shell one holds max of 2 electrons, shell 2=8 shell 3=18 increases exponentials
a. they are considered full with
8 electrons with exception shell one which is full with 2
b. valence
outer most shell that has an electron, highest energy level
c. rules of eight aka octet rule
shell that will have the reactive electron; atoms will interact in order to achieve a shell that is full
4. chemically inert elements
have outer shell hat already has 8 electrons, full valence shell, non reactive atoms ex. noble gases
5. chemically active elements
valence shell that is not full, they can gain, lose, or share electrons
B. Three Types of Chemical Bonds
ionic, covalent, hydrogen
1. Ionic bonds
are formed by electron transfer b/w atoms, positive and neg attract
a. Ions
atoms that have a charge that can be pos or neg
b. anions
ions that carry one or more charge, therefore they are attracted a positive pole, considered electron acceptors
c. cations
ions with one or more pos charge, therefore they are attracted a neg pole, electron donor
d. crystals
large groups of anions and cations held together by ionic bonds; formed when an element or compound silitafies in a dry state
2. Covalent bonds
chemical bonds formed by sharing of electrons b/w atoms
a. sharing of electrons
will occupy one single orbit that is common to both atoms
b. multiple covalent bonds
double, triple or quad bond formations
c. polar and non polar molecules
1. nonpolar molecules
electriclly balanced, electrons are shared equally b/w atoms
2. polar molecules
unsymmetrical in shape and are electrically unbalanced, electrons not shared equally
a. polar molecules are
determined by shape and the following: electronegativity, electropositivity, dipoles
b. electronegativity
equals having a strong attraction for electrons due to having a valence shells of 6 or 7 electrons
c. electropositivity
low attraction for electrons, usually lose their one or two valence shell electrons to other atom
d. dipoles
aka polar molecule
2. Covalent Bonds
D. charge distribution
D. based on electropositivity and electroneg
3. Hydrogen Bonds (polar)
weak bonds where hydrogen forms a bridge b/w electroneg. atoms, common b/c dipoles
a. surface tension
measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid due to cohesion
b. cohesion
tendency of water molecules to stick together and cohesion is due to hydrogen bonds
c. intramolecular bonds
(within molecular bonds) hydrogen bond different parts of large molecules together to form 3d shapes- maintains and stabilizes the structures ex. final structre of protein, dna, water.
V. Chemical Reactions
occur when bonds are formed, broken, or altered- atoms are always in motion, even in solid form
A. chemical reactions
a symbolic written form of a chemical reaction
1. reactants
the substances that are taken part in the reaction- the prefix designates the # of atoms present
2. products
the result of chemical bonding, reacts bonding together- the subscript designates the # of atoms that have been joined together
3. molecular formula
representation of the product with the use of subscripts- should be described in moles, such as a mole of nitrogen, oxygen, water
B. Patterns of Chemical Reactions
1. Synthesis (combination) reaction
reactants with form a product that is large and more complex- anabolic-always has bond formation
2. Decomposition Reaction
reactant is broken down into its parts-catabolic-bonds are always broken
3. Exchange (displacement) reaction
both synthesis and decomposition are occuring- reactants will exchange atomic partners
4. Oxidation Reduction Reactant
generally decomposition type reaction- breakdown of food or fuel to generate energy or ATP, one reactant gives up an electron or electrons it is considered the electron donor and oxidized- while the other reactant recieves the electrons so its the accptor and it is said to be reduced ex. cellular respiration
C. Energy flow in chemical reactions
1. Exergonic
give off or release energy, products are going to be less energy in thier bonds than reactants did-catabolic reaction
2. Entergonic
use energy, products will have more energy in bonds than reactants-anabolic reaction
D. Reversibilty of Chemical reactions
technically reactions are reversible but most do not b/c energy or product gets used up so they are not availible- arrows indicate the prominant direction of the reaction- can be in chemical equilibrium
E. Factors influencing Chemical Reactions
atoms have to collide with enough force for chemical reaction to occur
1. Temp
the higher the temp the higher the kenetic energy then the higher the collision rate
2. Particle Size
the smaller the particle the faster it will be therefore the higher collision rate
3. Concentration
the greater the reactant concentration the greater chance you have for collision
4. Catalysts
come into play when one through three (above) are not possible- substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being used up or changed- enzymes are biological catalysts
I. inorganic compounds
any compound that do not contain carbon
A. Water
60- 80% of every living cell
1. High heat capacity
absorbs and releases large amount of heat before it itself changes in temp, due to making and breaking of hydrogen bonds- helps maintain body temp against wind, sun, and muscle activity- within the blood helps to redistibute heat throughout the tissues
2. High heat of vaporization
is transformation from liquid to gas under extreme amount of heat ex. sweat: provides cooling system
3. Polarity/ Solvent Properties
almost every body reaction is going to use water as a solvent
a. ionic compounds
break up in water due to polarity in water
b. water can also form hydrogen layers by
surrounding charged molecules, water tends to surround proteins keeps things from settling
c. acts as
biological colloid, blood plasma
4. Reactivity
will only occur in one of two ways: Hydrolysis- the splitting apart with water, adding water to reactant to make smaller product, Dehydration Synthesis- removing water to make a larger product
5. Cushioning
can occur in a few diff ways: serous fluid, synobial fluid, CSF
B. Salts
any ionic compound other than hydroxil or hydrogen
1. in ionic form, acts as electrolytes
that conduct electrical current ex. NA+ and K+ conduct nerve impulses and aid muscle contraction
tumor of gland
adrenal glands
endocrine glands above kidney
building up from complex to simple
surgical connection b/w two parts
no blood- reduction in erythrocytes or hemoglobin in circulating blood
a deviation from normal especially of a bodily part
ante cibum
before meals
toward the front
pain in a joint
a wasting away, a diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part
the bursa becomes inflamed and movement is limited and painful
chemical complex, food broken down from complex to simple
toward the cauda or tail
cell membrane
structure surrounding and protecting the cell
smallest living unit
headache, head pain
surgical removal of gallbladder
persisting over long period of time
combining vowel
usually o , links the root to the suffix or root to another root.
common bile duct
carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, also called the choledochus
vertical plane from head to foot and parallel to the shoulders
studies cytology
includes all the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane
expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus
muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities