Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Predict what a person with type I diabetes mellitus should do when the blood-glucose level is too high and when it is too low.
These people cannot produce insulin because their immune system has destroyed the pancreatic cells that make insulin. If their blood level is too high, they should inject insulin so it can absorb the glucose, if it is too low, they should eat something with high concentration of sugar to increase their glucose levels quickly.
What are the four conditions that need to be met for a population to experience natural selection?
1) Individuals vary in their traits
2) some of these variations are heritable
3)some individuals survive and reproduce better than other individuals
4)differential survival and reproduction(DARWINIAN FITNESS) is influenced by the heritable traits of individuals.
Genetically based change in a population's traits over time.**A change in a population's allele frequency over time.
Heritable traits that increase an individual's fitness relative to individuals lacking that trait.
Darwinian Fitness
A relative measure in which groups (or genotypes) are compared.
Explain how the rpoB gene in M. Tuberculosis mutated and adapted to survive antibiotic.
When antibiotics were administered to the patient, they did not kill all the rpoB genes. The alleles that survived had a huge selective advantage, they survived better without mutation and reproduced.
Give an example of adaptation in a population.
The Galapagos finches. After a large drout, the finches that survived were those with large deep beaks because they were able to eat tough fruits. The large, deep beak is an adaptation for cracking large, tlough fruits and seeds.
Give a definiton of inbreeding and an example.
Inbreeding is mating between relatives--any kind of mating between relatives. An example is the intermarriage between the royal families of Europe.
Positive Assortative Mating
Mating between similar phenotypes, not necessarily relatives. For example, tall people marrying each other.
Negative Assortative Mating
Mating between dissimilar phenotypes.
Sexual Dimorphism
Refers to when the two sexes have different physical appearance (two morphs).Example: Elephant seals show a big size difference between females and males.
What are the consequences of cross-pollination versus those of self-pollination?
Cross pollination leads to outcrossing, in which male and female gametes are exchanged between different individuals of the same species. Self-pollination, in contrast, leads to self-fertizlization. Selfing is the most extreme form of inbreeding.
Some flowers are self-incompatible, what does this mean?
They have sophisticated mechanisms to enforce outcrossing.
Occurs when individuals use the same resources and when those resources are limited.
Takes place when one species resembles another
Mullerian Mimicry
Occurs when harmful species resemble each other. Example: bright colored wasps
Batesian mimicry
Occurs when a harmless species resembles a harmful one. Example:Monarch butterfly and Viceroy (mimiquer)
Are positive interactions that involve a wide variety of organisms and rewards.
Kinds of Mutualisms
gamete transfer
Examples of Mutualisms
-Pollinator attractants produced by plants
-animal dispersal of seeds
-deceiving individuals of another species
Populations that are isolated because physical barriers prevent them.
Genetic isolation that occurs if somehting prevents the population from successfully interbreeding. (sympatric-live in same geographical area).
a fertilized ovum; prezygotic mechanisms prevent different populations from producing zygotes; postzygotic mechanisms prevent zyogte from maturing and/or producing offspring (horse and donkey)
The creation of new species caused by genetic divergence: populations that experience reduced gene flow may diverge genetica due to a mutation, genetic drift, and/or natural selection
A distinct type of organism, formally defined as an evolutionarily independent population. EVOLUTIONARY INDEPENDENCE BEGINS WITH LACK OF GENE FLOW; once gene flow stops, mutation,selection,and drift can act on these independent populations
Biological speices concept
Evaluates difference by determining if two populations are able to successfully interbreed.
Morphospecies Concept
Relies on difference in appearance
Phylogenetic Species Concept
Uses phylogenetic trees to evaluate evolutionary independence
Genetic Divergence
Refers to differences between populations within a species, or difference between lineages that are becoming species
Genetic Variation
Refers to ideas like how many allele are at a locus, whether there are lots of loci that have more than 1 allele, whether there are heterozygotes in the population for some loci--it is a within-population idea
Allopatric Speciation
Reduction or elimination of gene flow due to physical isolation
Populations or species that live in the sam geographic region (close enough to mate)
The presence of more than two sets of chromosomes; causes speciation in sympatric plant populations
Mutations that result in a doubling of chromosome number
Individuals are produced by a mating between parents of two different species
Adaptive Radiation
When a single lineage produces many descendant groups in ashort period of time. Usually occur when habitats are unoccupied by competitors.
What are some examples of traits that allowed exploitation of new habitats, causing adaptive radiations?
1) the evolution of wings, three pairs of legs, and a protective external skeleton in insects
2)the evolution of flowers in angiosperms
3)the evolution of feathers and wings in birds
4)the evolution of a second set of jaws in cichlid fish.