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45 Cards in this Set

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Peptide bond:
The bond linking e amino acids forming a dipeptide
Water is given off
Role of Water
Universal Salvent
Lubricant
Cooling
Temprature Regulations
Water molecules are Cohesive
Able to suspend and dissolve molecules
Vesicle
Transports substances
Hydrolysis:
Breakedown of large molecules into two or more small molecules with the addition of water.
Golgi Body
Modifies Protiens
PH scale
indicates how acidic or basic
ranges from 0-14
Below 7 is Acid
Above 7 is basic
Smooth ER
Forms vesicles
Transports protiens to golgi Body
Saturated Fats:
All Carbon atoms have 2 hydrogen atoms
These fats are solid at room temprature
Lard, Butter (animal fats)
Mitochondrion
ATP is produced
Cellular Respration
Temprature Regulations
Due to "H" bonding the temp of liquids rises and falls slowly
Prevents sudden change in temp
nucleus
Controlls cell activities
Responsibele for cell devision
Makes new cells
Polysaccharide
Formed when many glucose molecules form together
Three types:
Cellulose, Starch, Glycogen
Rough ER
Makes proteins
Transports to smooth ER
Acid
Break apart in water releasing hydrogen ions
chromosome
Controlls protein synthesis
Stores genetic info
Carbohydrate:
Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.
Ratio of H:O is 2:1
Ribosome
site of protein synthesis
Universal Solvent
facilitates Chemical Reactions by being able to dissolve molecules
Neg. end attracts Pos. end
Pos. end attracts Neg. end
Nucleolus
mikes ribosomes from Rrna and proteins
Starch:
20-30 Glucose molecules
Storage for plants
Insoluble in water
Is broaken down by enzymes
Nucleoplasm
Fluid-like substance that fills up space
Cooling
When the temp. rises the water changes into steam and evaporates
lots of heat is needed for evaporation
Vacuole
Stores water
Provides support
Cellulose
Chain of 600 or more glucose molecules
Found in plant walls
Gives stregnth to the structure
Nuclear Envelope
Allowes substances to move in and out of nucleus
Maintanes shape of nucleus
Buffer
A neuteral substance that can take up excess "H" or "OH" ions
monosaccharide
Cant be broaken down
Simple sugar
Basic building block for all carbs.
Lipids:
Large molecule
Insoluable in water
Long term storage for energy
Veg. oils and Animal fats
Disacchoride
Formed by two monosaccharides and removing a water
Lubricant
helps stop friction and wear down of tissues, joints, and organs
Glycogen
12-18 Glucose molecules
Storage in animals
Stored in muscle and liver cells
Water molecules are cohesive
Cling together
hydrogen bonding
Excellen transport system
Primary Structure:
Order of Amino Acids in the chain
water is able to dissolve and suspend molecules and substances
allows blood to transport both dissolved compounds and suspended molecules
Unsaturated:
Not all carbons atoms have two hydrogen atoms attached
These fats are liquid at room temprature.
Olive oil, Corn oil (Plants)
Quaternary structure:
2 or more molecules joined to form a functional protein.
Denaturing:
Protein loses function (becomig useless)
Egg white cooked
Break the tertiary structure.
Condensation Reaction:
Formation of large molecule from two or more small molecules by the extract of a water molecule
Phospholipids:
The third fatty acid group is replaced by a phosphorous group.
Function of Proteins:
Structural:
Cell Membrain
Collagen
Keratin
Enzymes:
Very important
are catalysts
Speed up reactions
Tertiary Structure:
Gives the proteins its specific function
Polyunsaturated:
Many double bonds
Fewer hydrogens
Monounsaturated:
1 carbon atom
not saturated
Amino Acid:
Proteins are chains of amino acids
Secondary Structure:
"H" bonds are formed between the H atom on the Amino Group