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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In an experiment, a neurons membrane voltage is changed from -70 mV to -57 mV. After the experiment, the membrane returns to -70 mV. How does it return to -70 mV?

a) By using the leaky ion channels
b) By depolarizing
c) Using the Na/K pump
d) Both a and b
e) Both a and c
e) Both a and c.
Neurons have "leaky" ion channels in their cell membranes. Why are these channels important to the neuron?

a) The leaky channels open and close, according to membrane voltage.
b) Only electrically excitable cells have "leaky" channels
c) The "leaky" channels help maintain resting membrane potential.
d) Both A and B
e) This is a trick question: neurons do not have "leaky" ion channels in their cell membranes.
c) The "leaky" channels help maintain resting membrane potential.
Which of the following is true about the resting membrane potential?

a) It requires functioning Na/K pumps in the cell membrane
b) It requires a gradient of ATP across the cell membrane.
c) Only neurons and muscle cells possess it.
d) It requires an equal distribution of charge across the cell membrane.
e) It occurs only when the cell is electrically "excited"
a) It requires functioning Na/K pumps in the cell membrane.
An afferent nerve...

a) sends info to the CNS
b) sends info to the muscles
c) sends sensory info
d) both A and C
e) both A and B
d) Both A and C
In Figure 1, the cell is experiencing ________ at step 2.

a) a depolarization
b) an EPSP
c) an IPSP
d) both A and B
e) both A and C
d) Both A and B
In figure 1, what is happening at 1?

a) V-Na are open
c) the Na/K pump is at work
c) The inside of the membrane is negative compared o the outside.
d) Both A and B
e) Both B and C
e) Both B and C
In fig. 1, the membrane voltage is lower than the resting potential at step 7. How did this happen?

a) V-K are closed
b) The Na/K pump has stopped working.
c) K efflux
d) K influx
e) Na influx
c) K efflux
In fig 1, step 4, Na is moving across the cell membrane. Which of the following is true?

a) The Na is preventing the Na/K pump from working.
b) The Na has caused leaky channels to close.
c) Step 4 represents Na efflux
d) Na is moving by diffusion
e) This is a trick question: Na is not moving across the cell membrane at step 4.
d) Na is moving by diffusion
In fig 1, the neuron is unable to fire another action potential at 6. Why?

a) the membrane is hyperpolarized at 6.
b) the V-K are closed
c) The V-Na are inactivated
d) Both a and c
e) This is a trick question. the neuron is able to fire an AP at 6.
c) The V-Na are inactivated
In fig 1, what is happening at 5?

a) The Na/K pump is at work
b) V-K are closing
c) V-Na are closing
d) Both a and b
e) Both a and c
e) Both a and c
Which of the following is true about voltage gated ion channels?

a) They allow neurons to be electrically excitable
b) They are proteins
c) They are open all the time
d) Both a and b
e) Both a and c
d) Both a and b
A neuron's membrane voltage changes from -70 mV to -80 mV, then returns to -70 mV. This change in voltage is called...

a) graded potential
b) a hyperpolarization
c) a depolarization
d) an action potential
e) both A and B
e) Both A and B
During continuous propagation, _____ from one "patch" of membrane causes an adjacent membrane "patch to _____

a) Na, reach threshold
b) Ca, depolarize
c) Na, hyperpolarize
d) V-K, reach threshold
e) K, hyperpolarize
a) Na, reach threshold
A neuron at rest experiences an efflux of Cl. This will cause...

a) An EPSP
b) a depolarization
c) a hyperpolarization
b) both A and C
e) both A and B
e) both A and B
Which of the following is true about myelin?

a) It coats axon
b) Myelin covers the nodes
c) It is made from Schwann cells
d) Both A and B
e) Both A and C
e) Both A and C
Action potentials travel from the axon terminals to the axon hillock because...

a) the membrane behind the action potential is still experiencing K influx
b) the membrane behind the action potential is still refractory
c) incoming ions only travel towards the axon terminals
d) calcium channels prevent V-K from opening in time
e) This is trick question: action potentials start at the axon hillock
e) This is a trick question
At the synapse, when acetylcholine enters the postsynaptic cell, it will

a) cause an EPSP
b) cause an IPSP
c) propagate
d) turn into acetylcholinesterase
e) this is a trick question. action potentials start at the axon hillock.
e) This is a trick question
Which of the following is true about chemically gated channels?

a) They only open in response to ACh
b) they open in response to voltage
c) they are proteins
d) both A and B
e) both B and C
c) They are proteins
If the axon loses its myelin,

a) it will carry out saltatory propagation
b) action potentials will travel faster along the axon
c) it becomes a Schwann cell
d) action potentials will travel more slowly
e) both a and b
d) action potentials will travel more slowly
How do NTs cross the synaptic cleft?

a) they are carried across the cleft by enzymes
b) they are carred across the cleft in vesicles
c) diffusion
d) electrical attraction
e) this is a trick question: NTs never cross the synaptic cleft
c) diffusion
How does Botox work?

a) It blocks ACh receptors on the muscle cell membrane.
b) It prevents muscle cells from firing action potentials
c) It prevents motorneurons from firing actions potentials
d) it mimics gaba
e) it mimics ACh
b) It prevents muscle cells from firing AP
After it binds to chemically gated channels, GABA will cause

a) an influx of K
b) EPSP
c) IPSP
d) Both A and B
e) This is a trick question: GABA binds to voltage gated channels
c) IPSP
At a synapse, the V-Ca on the axon terminal are prevented from opening. When this neuron fires an AP, no NT is released. Why?

a) Ca influx is required for cytoskeleton activity
b) Ca influx is required for hyperpolarization
c) Without Ca influx, the cell cannot synthesize NT
d) w/out Ca efflux, no exocytosis will occur
e) This is a trick question: this neuron will now release extra NT
a) Ca influx is required for cytoskeleton activity
ACh is causing a depolarization at the post synaptic membrane of a synapse. How does ACh do this?

a) ACh allows K channels to open
b) ACh causes V-Ca to open
c) ACh allows Na channels to open
d) influx of ACh through the post-synaptic membrane
e) this is a trick question: ACh never causes depolarization
c) ACh allows Na channels to open
A single postsynaptic neuron is receiving input from thousands of presynaptic neurons. if ___, then this postsynaptic neuron will fire an action potential

a) its membrane becomes hyperpolarized
b) IPSPs outnumber EPSPs
c) EPSPs outnumber IPSPs
d) Both a and b
e) Both a and c
c) EPSPs outnumber IPSPs
The [ACh] in a synapse is way to high. Which of the following is true?

a) the postsynaptic membrane is releasing too much ACh
b) AChsterase has been inhibited
c) AChsterase is working too hard
d) both A and C
e) Both A and B
b) AChsterase has been inhibited
The CNS consists of

a) parasympathetic nerves
b) neurons only
c) afferent nerves
d) the brain and the spinal cord
e) the midbrain and the medulla
d) the brain and the spinal cord
When a neuron is releasing a lot of ______, it means the neuron is getting tired.

a) ATP
b) caffeine
c) myelin
d) CSF
e) adenosine
e) adenosine
How does Prozac increase synaptic levels of serotonin?

a) It increase the release of serotonin into the synapse?
b) It inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin from the synapse
c) Prozan binds serotonin receptors
d) It inhibits enzymes which destroy serotonin
e) This is a trick question: prozac does not increase serotonin levels in the synapse
b) it inhibits the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse
Valium...

a) binds to GABA receptors
b) blocks serotonin receptors
c) prevents GABA release from the pre-synaptic neuron
d) mimics serotonin
e) causes EPSPs
a) binds to GABA receptors
Your body temp is controlled by

a) the hindbrain
b) the spinal cord
c) the olfactory cortex
d) the hypothalamus
e) the midbrain
d) the hypothalamus
Your cerebral cortex is highly folded and wrinkled. Why?

a) This decreases myelination.
b) This increases the number of neuronal cell bodies that can be stored in your cortex
c) This increases the number of axons that can be stored in your cortex
d) both A and B
e) both A and C
b) This increases the # of neuronal cell bodies that can be stored in your cortex
Meningitis is dangerous because blood supply to the brain can be disrupted. How does this disruption occur?

a) Meningitis causes inflammation of the meninges
b) Meningitis causes your thumbs to swell up
c) Meningitis causes blood vessels to expand
d) Meningitis disintegrates meninges
e) This is a trick question: meningitis does not affect the brains blood supply
a) Meningitis causes inflammation of the meninges
Which of the following is true about the cerebrospinal fluid?

a) It is an isotonic solution
b) It is a hypertonic solution
c) It acts like a shock absorber
d) Both A and C
e) Both B and C
d) Both A and C
In an experiment on a muscle cell, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca pumps have been deactivated. When this muscle cell fires an AP...

a) the cell will not contract
b) the SR will be unable to release Ca into the cytosol
c) the cell will be unable to relax
d) Both A and B
e) This is a trick question: without functional Ca pumps on the SR, the cell would not be able to fire an AP
c) The cell will be unable to relax
A muscle cell is carrying out tetanus. Which of the following is true?

a) Cytosolic [Ca] in the muscle cell is very low
b) Ca uptake is greater than Ca release from the SR
c) The muscle cell is firing many APs in rapid succession.
d) Both A and B
e) Both B and C
c) The muscle cell is firing many APs in rapid succession
"Excitation contraction coupling" refers to the link between _____ and _____.

a) mitochondria, muscle contraction
b) AP, graded potentials
c) AP, muscle contraction
d) ATP, muscle contraction
e) AP, mitochondria
c) AP, muscle contraction
Myosin and myogoblin both...

a) bind oxygen
b) form cross-bridges with actin
c) are proteins
d) Both A and C
e) both B and C
c) are proteins
A _____ muscle cell takes longer to fatigue, in part because it contains ______.

a) fast, hemogoblin
b) creatine, ADP
c) slow, myogoblin
d) fast, myogoblin
e) slow, hemogoblin
c) slow, myogoblin
A muscle cell fires an AP and cytosolic [Ca] increases because Ca ions...

a) leave the SR by diffusion
b) leave the SR by active transport
c) are actively transported into the cell
d) Both A and B
e) Both B and C
a) leave the SR by diffusion
A patient's muscle cells do not synthesize myophosphorylase. Which of the following would you expect to find?

a) Not enough glycolysis in their muscle cells
b) Increased muscle strength
c) Not enough creatine phosphate in their muscle cells
d) Not enough glycogen in their muscle cells
e) Myogloblin in their blood
e) Myogoblin in their blood
In the muscle cell, creatine phosphokinase is transfering phosphate from ATP to creatine. What is this muscle cell doing?

a) Undergoing strenuous exercise
b) Resting
c) Using creatine to regenerate ATP
d) Both A and C
e) This is a trick question: creatine phosphokinase only transfers phosphate from creatine phosphate to ADP
b) Resting
A muscle cell is producing lots of lactic acid. This means...

a) glycolysis has stopped working
b) the cell's pH is rising
c) the cell is hard at work
d) both A and B
e) both A and C
c) the cell is hard at work
What is the likely affect of endurance conditioning on muscle?

a) Increased vasculature
b) Increased numbers of mitochondria
c) Increased myoglobin
d) An increase in motor units
e) A, B, and C
e) A, B, C
Which of the following is true about dystrophin?
a) It binds to creatine phosphate in muscle cells
b) It is a protein
c) It helps maintain the muscle cell membrane
d) Both A and B
e) Both B and C
e) Both B and C
Why is glycolysis important during strenuous exercise?

a) It doesn't use oxygen and makes new mitochondria
b) It doesn't use oxygen and makes glucose
c) Using oxygen, it produces a lot of ATP
d) Using oxygen, it produces a little bit of ATP
e) It doesn't use oxygen, and produces ATP
e) It doesn't use oxygen, and produces ATP
You are using your biceps to lift a 5-pound weight; you try and succeed. Which of the following is TRUE?

a) Your biceps is carrying out isometric contraction.
b) Your bicep is carrying out an isotonic contraction
c) Cross-bridges are forming in your biceps
d) Both a and c
e) Both b and c
e) Both B and C
As you place more textbooks into your schoolbag, the bag gets heavier and heavier. How are you able to adjust muscle tension to keep lifting it?

a) increase the number of muscle cells in your muscles
b) decrease the number of cross bridges in your muscles
c) increase recruitment of motorunits
d) increase the number of motorunits you have in your muscles
e) consume more oxygen while producing less ATP
c) increase recruitment of motorunits
A bodybuilder can lift heavier weights than you. Why?

a) The bodybuilder's muscles have more myofibrils than yours
b) The bodybuilder's muscles have more actin than yours
c) The bodybuilder's muscles have more muscle cells than yours
d) Both A and B
e) Both A and C
d) Both A and B
The biceps will bend your arm at the elbow, while the triceps will straighten your arm at the elbow. This is an example of...

a) a smooth muscle pair
b) an antagonistic muscle pair
c) autonomic control
d) both A and C
e) this is a trick question: biceps extend the arm, triceps bend the arm
b) an antagonistic muscle pair