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44 Cards in this Set

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Functions of Endocrine Gland
Secrets hormones WITHOUT ducts directly into the interstitial flui, where they diffuse into blood stream

Hormone - Insulin
Hormone
Chemical messenger secreted to control a metabolic process
Insulin
Secreted by Pancreas of the Endocrine Gland, Controls Blood Sugar
Exocrine Gland
Secrets WITH ducts

Hormones - Steroid, Polypeptide
Polypeptides
Cannot penetrate cell membrane

Have receptors on cell membrane
Steroids
Fat soluble, and can penetrate cell membrane

All have cytoplasmic receptors
Signal Transduction
Transfer of Signal from Outside to inside of cell.
Lock and Key fit
One hormone to One receptor
Receptor Protein
Will act on contact as First Messenger.

Will then trigger Enzymatic Protein to release second messenger.
Second Messenger in Muscles
Calcium
G Protein
Switching proteins attached to Receptor protein

Switches things on and off
GTP & GDP
When G proteins are attached to GTP, other enzymes are Activated

When attached to GDP, other enzymes are Deactivated
Adenylyl Cyclase
An enzyme that converts ATP to CAMP or Cyclic Adenosine mono-phosphate
Cyclic AMP
Frequently acts as a second messenger.

ATP change by Adenylyl to CAMP is used in smooth muscles to open Calcium Gates.
How are signals amplified
The Receptor protein sends G protein to many enzymes. so One receptor can activate many of them.
Second messenger for Hormone Receptor
Calcium
Where is Calcium as Second messenger for Polypepide Hormones Found? (3)
Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal Glands
Functions of Polypeptide Hormones (2)
Maintain homeostasis
Transcription - Production of New Proteins
Insect Chromosomes
Genes are represented by Bands, if genes are undergoing Transcription, the Band puffs out
Respiratory Medium
Source of Oxygen

Air for land animals
Water for water animals
Respiratory Surface
Part of animal's body where gases are exchanged
Gills
Outfoldings of the body surface suspended in water
Counter Current Exchange
Blood Flows the opposite way of water, makes fish breathing more efficient
Tracheal System
Breathing Systems
Larynx
Voice Box

Upper part of respitory track
Trachea
Windpipe
Bronchi
Tube that connects trachea to each Lung
Bronchioles
Branched Bronchi
Alveoli
Dead end cluster of air sac, where gas exchange occurs
Positive Pressure Breathing
Amphibians use this

It is the pushing of air into the lungs
Negative Pressure Breathing
Mammals use this

Sucks air into the Lungs
Diaphragm
Sheet of Skeletal Muscle forms bottom wall of chest cavity
Tidal Volume
How much air a mammal an inhale or exhale

Average 500 mL in humans
Vital Capacity
Maximum tidal volume during forced breathing

3.4L for Female
4.8L for Male
Residual Volume
The air that remains in your lungs even when fully exhaling
Parabronchi
Sites of gas exchange in Bird Lungs
Location of Breathing Control Centers (2)
Medulla Oblongate and Pons
Partial Pressure effects _____
___ Effects the diffusion of gas
Respiratory Pigements
Proteins that help to trasport O2
Hemocyanin
Respiratory pigments in arthropods and molluscs
Bohr Shift
The drop of pH lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for O2
ADH, Produced by, Function
Anti Diuretic Hormone
Produced by neurons
Increases amount of water reabsorbed by kidney
Pars Nervosa
Neurons in Posterior Pituitary
What is Type I and Type II diabetes? What is difference of each?
I - Mellitus - too much sugar

II - Insipidus - Lack of ADH