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55 Cards in this Set

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Gonad
An ovary in a female or a testis in male. the gonads produce gametes (egg or sperm) and sex hormones
Testes
the make gonads. the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone
Ovary
One of the female gonads. The female gonads produce the ova (eggs) and the hormones estrogen and progesterone
Sperm
A mature male gamete. A spermatozoon
Egg
A mature female gamete. An ovum. The egg contains the mother's genetic contribution to the next generation and nutrients
Zygote
the diploid cell resulting from the joining of an egg nucleus and a sperm nucleus. the first cell of a new individual
Meiosis
a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads and gives rise to gametes. As a result two divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II), haploid gametes are produced from diploid germ cells
Fertilization
The union between an egg (technically a secondary oocyte) and a sperm. It takes about 24 hours from start to finish and usually occurs in a widen portion of the oviduct, not far from the ovary
Scrotum
a loose fleshy sac containing the testes
Interstitial cells
cells located between the seminiferous tubules in the testes that produce the male steroid sex hormones, collectively called androgens
Seminiferous tubules
coiled tubules within the testes where sperm are produced
Inguinal canal
A passage through the abdominal wall through which the testes pass in their descent to the scrotum and that contains the testicular artery and vein and the vas deferens
Inguinal hernia
A condition in which soft tissue — usually part of the intestine — protrudes through a weak point in the groin, where the abdomen meets the thigh.
Acrosome
a membranous sac at the tip of a sperm cell that contains enzymes that facilitate sperm penetration into the egg during fertilization
Testosterone
a male sex hormone needed for sperm production and the maintenance of male reproductive structures. Testosterone is produced primarily by the interstitial cells of the testes
Estrogen
A steroid female sex hormone produced by the follicle cells and the corpus luteum in the ovary. estrogen helps oocytes mature, stimulates cell division in the endometrium and the breast with each uterine cycle, and maintains secondary sex characteristics. the adrenal cortex also secretes estrogen.
Progesterone
a female sex hormone produced by the corupus luteum in the ovary. progesterone helps prepare the endometrium (lining) of the uterus for pregnancy and maintains the endometrium
LH (luteinizing hormone)
a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that in females stimulates ovulation and the formation of the corupus luteum (which produces estrogen and progesterone) and prepares the mammary glands for milk production. In males it stimulates testosterone production by the interstitial cells within the testes
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that in females stimulates the development of the follicles in the ovaries, resulting in the development of ova (eggs) and the production of estrogen, and in males stimulates sperm production
HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone)
a hormone produced by the cells of the early embryo (blastocyst) and the placenta that maintains the corupus luteum for approximately the first 3 months of pregnancy. hcg enters the bloodstream of the mother and is excreted in her urine. hcg forms the basis of many pregnancy tests
Seminal vesicles
A pair of male accessory reproductive glands located posterior to the urinary bladder. their secretions contribute to semen and serve to nourish the sperm cells, reduce the acidity in the vagina, and coagulate sperm
Semen
the fluid expelled from the penis during male orgasm. semen consists of sperm and the secretions of the accessory glands
Penis
the cylindrical external reproductive organ of a male through which most of the urethra extends and that serves to deliver sperm into the female tract during sexual intercourse
Erectile dysfunction (Impotence)
the inability to achieve or maintain an erection long enough for sexual intercourse
Epididymis
A long tube coiled on the surface of each testis that serves as the site of sperm cell maturation and storage
Vas deferens
a tubule that conducts sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
Urethra
the muscular tube that transports urine from the floor of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. in males it also conducts sperm from the vas deferens out of the body through the penis
Prostate gland
an accessory reproductive gland in males that surrounds the urethra as it passes from the bladder. its secretions contribute to semen and serve to activate the sperm and to counteract the acidity of the female reproductive tract
erection of penis
refer to book
accessory glands
bulbourethral glands, prostate glands
Cowper’s gland (bulbourethral gland0
male accessory reproductive glands that release a clear slippery liquid immediately before ejaculation
Ejaculation
the ejecting of semen from the penis
Receptor
a protein molecule located in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane of cells that is sensitive to chemical messengers
Secondary sex characteristics
traits that distinguish the two sexes
Follicle ovulation
refer to book
Corpus luteum
a structure in the ovary that forms from the follicle cells remaining in the ovary after ovulation. the corupus luteum functions as an endocrine structure that secretes estrogen and progesterone
Oviducts
one of two tubes that conduct the ova from the ovary to the uterus in the female reproductive system. it is also called a uterine tube or a fallopian tube
Cilia
extension of the plasma membrane found on some cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract, that move in a back and forth motion. they are usually shorter and much more numerous than flagella but have the same 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules at their core.
Ectopic pregnancy
a pregnancy in which the embryo (blastocyst) implants and begins development in a location other than the uterus, most commonly in the oviducts (a tubal pregnancy)
Uterus
a hollow muscular organ in the female reproductive system in which the embryo implants and develops during pregnancy
Endometrium
the inner layer of the uterus consisting of connective tissue, glands, and blood vessels. the endometrium thickens and develops with each menstrual cycle and is then lost as menstrual flow. it is the site of embryo implantation during pregnancy
Cervix
the narrow neck of the uterus that projects into the vagina whose opening provides a passageway for materials moving between the vagina and the body of the uterus
Body of uterus
refer to book
Menstrual flow
refer to book
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
a general term for any baterial infection of a woman's pelvic organs. PID is usually caused by secually transmitted bateria especially during secual intercourse
Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. It may present with vaginal bleeding but symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in its advanced stages, which has made cervical cancer the focus of intense screening efforts using the Pap smear
Pap test
designed to detect premalignant and malignant processes in the ectocervix. It may also detect infections and abnormalities in the endocervix and endometrium.
Vagina
a muscular tube in the female reproductive sustem that extends from the uterus to the vulva and serves to receive the penis during sexual intercourse and as a the birth canal
Vaginitis
an imflammation of the vagina
Clitoris
A small, erctile body in the female that stimulates pleasure
Menstrual (uterine) cycle
the sequence of events that occurs on an approximately 28-day cycle in the uterine lining (endometrium) that involves the thickening of and increased blood supply to the endometrium and the loss of the endometrium as menstrual flow
Ovarian cycle
the sequence of events in the ovary that leads to ovulations. the cycle is approximately 28 days long and is closely coordinated with the menstrual cycle
Anterior pituitary gland
The front portion of the pituitary, a small gland in the head called the master gland. Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary influence growth, sexual development, skin pigmentation, thyroid function, and adrenocortical function. These influences are exerted through the effects of pituitary hormones on other endocrine glands except for growth hormone which acts directly on cells.
Negative feedback
the homeostatic mechanism in which the outcome of a process feeds back on the system, shutting down the process
Menopause
the end of a female's reproductive potential when ovulation and menstruation cease