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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Menopause
the end of a female's reproductive potential when ovulation and menstruation cease
Bone remodeling
the ongoing process of bone deposition and absorption in response to hormonal and mechanical factors
Bone density
(refer to book)
Osteoporosis
a decrease in bone density that occurs when the destruction of bone outpaces the formation of new bone, causing bone to become thin, brittle and susceptible to fracture
Calcitonin (CT)
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are high. it stimulates the removal of calcium from the blood and inhibits the breakdown of bone
Parathyroid hormone
a hormone released from the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone. PTH also called parathormone, is secreted when blood calcium levels are too low
Fibroadenoma
(refer to book)
Fibrocystic disease
(refer to book)
Cancer
(refer to book)
Gene
a segment of dna on a chromosome that directs the synthesis of a specific polypeptide that will play a structural or functional role in a cell. some genes have regulatory regions of dna within their boundaries. also, some genes code for rna molecules that are needed for the production of the polypeptide but are not part of it
Mutation
a change in the base sequence of the dna of a gene. a mutation may occur spontaneously or be caused by outside sources, such as radiation or chemical agents. mutations are the only source of new characteristics in a population
Tumor suppressor gene
(refer to book0
Proto-oncogene
(refer to book)
Oncogene
(refer to book)
Programmed cell death
a genetically programmed series of events that causes a cell to self destruct
Telomeres
a piece of dna at the tips of chromosomes that protects the ends of the chromosomes
Telomerase
the enzyme that synthesizes telomeres
Benign tumor
an abnormal mass of tissue that usually remains at the site where it forms
Malignant tumor
a cancerous tumor. an abnormal mass of tissue that can invade surrounding tissue and spread to multiple locations throughout the body
Lymphatic system
a body system consisting of lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymphatic tissue and organs. the lymphatic system helps return interstitial fluid to the blood, transports the products of fat digestion from the digestive system to the blood, and assists in body defenses
Metastasize
to spread from one part of the body to another part not directly connected to the first part. cancerous tumors metastasize and form new tumors in distant parts of the body
Blood pressure
the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. it is caused by the contraction of the ventricles and is influenced by vasoconstriction
Thrombophlebitis
the presence of a thrombus (a stationary blood clot that forms in the blood vessels. a thrombus can block blood flow) in a vein accompanied by inflammation of the vessel wall.
Heart attack
the death of heart muscle cells caused by an insufficient blood supply; a myocardial infraction
Stroke
a cerebrovascula accident. a condition in which nerve cells die because the blood supply to a region of the brain is shut off, usually because of hemorrhage or atherosclerosis. the extent and location of the mental of physical impairment caused by a stroke depend on the region of the brain involved
Aneurysm
a blood-filled sac in the wall of an artery caused by a weak area in the artery wall
Atherosclerosis
a narrowing of the arteries caused by the thickening of the arterial walls and a buildup of lipid (primarily cholesterol) deposits. atherosclerosis reduces blood flow through the vessel, choking off the vital supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues serves by that vessel
Pulmonary embolism
blockage of the pulmonary artery (blood vessels that carry blood low in oxygen from the right ventricle to the lungs, where it is oxygenated) by foreign matter or by a blood clot