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71 Cards in this Set

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heterotrophs
dependent on a regular supply of food
Animals fit into 3 categories
herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
herbivores
gorillas,cattle,hares and eat autotrophs
carnivores
sharks,hawks,spiders,snakes eat other animals
omnivores
regularly consume animals as wel as plant or algal matter, cocroaches,crows,cears,racoons
prokaryotes
what all animals consume along with the other food
Adequate diet
fuel (chemical energy) for all the cellular work of the body; the organic raw materials animals use in biosynthesis (carbon skeletons to make many of their own molecules); and essential nutrients such as vitamines that the animal cannot make for itself from any raw material
ATP
powers resting metabolism, various activities, and in endotherms, thermoregulation
What is ATP based on
the oxidation of energy rich organic molecules (carbs, protiens and fats- in cell respiration
What happens to excess calories
the excess can be used for biosynthesis
Glucose
major fuel for cells, and its metabolism, regulated by homone action and is sugar
Undernourishment
if the diet of a human or other animaal is chronically deficient in calories the fuel is taken out of storage and oxidized
Glucagon
promote the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and the release of glucose into the blood increasing blood glucose level
obesity
contributes to diabetes,carbiovascular disease and colon and breast cancer
insulin
enhances the treansport of glucose into the body cells and stimulates the liver and muscle as glycogen and blood glusose level drops
leptin
produces by adipose(fat) tissue leptin suppresses appetite as levelincrease and when body fat decreases leeptin levels fall and appetite increases
Hormone PYY
secreted by the small intestine after meals, acts as an appetite suppressant
Ghrelin
secreted by stomach wall, is one of the signals that triggers felling of hunger as you loose weight, ghrelin increases
young petrels
have to consume more calories than they burn in metaolism and so they become obese and are too heavy to fly
Essential nutrients
materials that must be obtained by preassembled form because the animals cells cannot make them from any raw material
malnourished
an animal whose diet is missing one or more essential nutrients
4 classes of essential nutrients
essential amino acids essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals
Essential amino acids
most be obtained from rood in prefabricated form if you dont have enough its a protien defficiency
Essential fatty acids
the ones they cannot make, are certain unsaturated fatty acids makes phospholibpids found in membranes
Vitamins
organic molecules required in the diet in amounts that are quite small compared fatty and essential
Water soluble vitamins
includes B complex and C (required for connective tissue) excess is urine
Fat soluble vitamins
A,D,E,and K
A-pigments of eye
D calcuim absobtion and bone
E oxidation
K required for blood clots
Minerals
simple inorganic nutrients,
Ingestion
the act of eating, is the only first stage of food processing
Digestion
second stage of food processing process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
involves enzymatic hydrolysis of plymers into their monomers
-polysaccharides and disacchardies are split into simple sugars
-fats are digest into glycerol and fatty acids
-protiens are split into amino acids
-nucleic acids are cleaved ointo nucleotides
Enzymatic hydrolysis
the chemical digestion is usually precede by mechanical fragmentation of food by chewing , breaking food into smaller pieces increaes the surface area exposed to digestive juices containing hydroliytic enzymes
Absoption
the third stage, animalscells absorb small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars from the digestive compartment
Elimination
last stage as undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment
Intracellular digestion
begines after a cell engulfs fod by phagocytosis or pinocytosis food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested within food vacuoles
extracellular digestion
is the breakdown of food particles outside cells
Gastrovascular cavity
funcitions in both digestion and distributgion of nutrients throughout the body
Hydras
carnivores that capture prey with specialized organelles called cnidae
Simple body plan
have a gastrovascular cavity that functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients
animals with more complex body
have digestive tube with 2 openings (mouth and anus)
the digestive tube
called complete digestive tract or an alimentary canal
Peristalsis
rhythmic waves of contraction by smooth musches in the wall of the calsn and pushes food along the tract
Sphincters
ringlike valve which close off the tube like drawstrings regulating passage of material between chambers of canal
Accessory glands
3 pairs of salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
Oral Cavity
tirggers a nervous reflx that causes the salivary glands to deliver saliva throgh ducts to the oral cavity
Salivary amylase
an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen
Bolus
shapes the food into a ball
Pharynx
region we call our throat, junction that opens to both the esophagus and windpipe
Esophagus
conducts food from the pharynx down tothe somach by perstasis
Stomach
stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion in the upper abdominal cavity below diaphragm
Gastric juice
digestive fluid mixes this secretion with the food by the churing action fo the smooth musces in the stomach wall
Pepsin
in gastric juice, enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of proteins
Acid chyme
what begins in the stomach as a recently swallowed meal becomes a nutrient rich broth
Small intestine
longest section of the alimentary canal, major organ of digestion and absoption
Ezymatic action (duedenum)
first part of the intestine here the acid chyme from the stomach mizes with digestive juices from the pancreas,liver,gallbladder and intestine itself
Bile
by the liver, mixture of substances that is stored in the gallbladder until needed
Pancreas
produces proteases, protien digesting enzymes that are activated once they enter the duodenum
Enzymatic Completion
as peristasis moves the mixture of chyme and digestive juices along the small intestine
Lining of stomach
is coated with mucus which prevents the gastric juice from destroying the cells, ulcers are caused by bacterium helicobacter pylori
Villi
large circular folds in the lining bear fingerlike projections called villi
Microvilli
epithelial cell of a villus has many microscopic appendages called microvilli and are exposed to intestinal lumen
enterogastone
secreted by the duodenum inhibits peristalsis and acid secretion by the stomach
lacteal
small vessel of the lymphatic system
large fat globules
emulsified by bile alts in the duodenum
chylomicrons
fats mixed with chlesterol and coated with proteins, forming small globules which are transported out of the epithelial cells and into lacteals
hepatic portal vein
blood vessel that leads directly to the liver and makes sure it has access to amino acids and sugars
large intestine
connected to the small intestine at a T-shaped junction where a sphincter controls the movement of material
Cecum
this is the T-shaped pouch
Appendix
fingerlike extension which is dispensable
Colon
major function is to recover water that has entered the alimentary canal as the solvent of vaious digestive juices
Rectum
terminal portion of the colon, where feces are stored until they can be eliminated
Ruminant Digestion
the stomach of a ruminant has four chambers because of the microbial action in the chambers, the diet from which a ruminant actually absorbs its nutrients is much richer than the grass the animal originally ate.