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50 Cards in this Set

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1) What are hyphae?
a microscopic filaments making up the bulk of multicellular fungus
2) What is a mass of many hyphae called?
Mycelium
3) What are the different names for spore producing organs on fungi?
fruiting body
4) What kinds of fungi produce sexual spores in “sacs”?
Ascomycetes – produces sexual spores in cups or sac-like structures
5) What kind of fungus produces sexual spores in a club shaped structure?
Basidiomycetes – release asexual spores from a basidium or club-like structure

YOu need to know what like of mushrooms it group
6) Zygospores are produced by what kind of fungi?
Zygomycetes – produce zygospores
7) What types of fungi are called primitive fungi?
Chytrids
8) What are Glomeromycota?
they live inside plant roots, may be a separate phylum
9) What practical uses are ascomycetes used for?
brewer's yeast and baker's yeast
What are smuts and rusts? (What do they affect ecologically?)
They are Basidiomycetes
AND

And cause serious diseases of cereal crops such as corn and wheat.
11) What are Rhizoids?
rhizoids are small branching hyphae that grow downwards that anchor the fungus
Leaf cutting ants and have fungal gardens
have a mutualism relationship
What is Lichen?
-Dual organism

separate question-

Scientists would be alarmed if they decreased
14) How long can underground fungi get up to?
Range in size from microscopic to 1500 acres
Are Funguses closer to plants or humans?
evidence places fungi closer to animals

THEY ARE NOT CLOSER TO PLANTS
What is a Blastula?
Earlier stages on an embryo
Blastula FOLD to form gastrula with 2 or 3 tissue layers
17) What are the three principle germ layers in animals, and what do they develop into?
-Blastula fold to form gastrula with 2 or 3 tissue layers (primary germ layers)
**** ANSWER***ECTODEOM (outside)– skin and nervous system
Endoderm (inside)– digestive tract and derived organs
Mesoderm(middle) – muscles, reproductive system
18) What is a Coelom?
• Coelom is a Fluid-filled cavity that forms completely within the mesoderm
19) Define: gastrovascular cavity, complete digestive system, and incomplete digestive system?
*Incomplete digestive tract – one opening –
EATS AND POOP OUT OF ONE HOLE

*Complete digestive tract has mouth and anus
20) What phylum do jellyfish belong to?
Jellyfishes are Cnidarians
What are characteristics to the Cnidarian phylum?
****there were of characteristics but you had to identify the one that did not belong. I think it was the digestive system but I dont know
• Mostly marine
• Radially symmetrical
o Polyp or medusa (know differences)
o Many cnidarians, such as hydra, corals, and sea anemones, exist exclusively as polyps. In contrast Jellyfishes exist only as medusas, Still other cnidarians alternate between the two body forms.
• True tissues (two layers endoderm and ectoderm)
• gastrovascular cavity
Radially symmetric eumatazoans form two distinct embryonic layers
An outer ectoderm -> epidermis
An inner indoderm->….
What are characteristics of a mollusk?
****there were of characteristics but you had to identify the one that did not belong. I think it was the digestive system but I dont know
• Visceral mass (digestive, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems)
o 100,000 named species
• Open circulatory system except for cephalopods which have a closed circulatory system
• Complete digestive system
• Bilateral symmetry
• Gills exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
• well developed nervous systems
What is an open circulatory system?
The open circulatory system is common to molluscs and arthropods. Open circulatory systems (evolved in crustaceans, insects, mollusks and other invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel with the blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood.
What is a closed circulatory system?
Vertebrates, and a few invertebrates, have a closed circulatory system. Closed circulatory systems have the blood closed at all times within vessels of different size and wall thickness. In this type of system, blood is pumped by a heart through vessels, and does not normally fill body cavities.
What phylum do pinworms belong to?
Nematodes
Understand what broad spectrum of species that are encompassed by the phylum Arthropoda.
***I think it only asked about exoskeletons

"Jointed feet”
•More than 1 million species
•Shed their exoskeleton – made of chitin & calcium salts
-Insects & spiders most known
-Segmented bodies
-To grow – must molt & secrete a bigger exoskeleton
-Open circulatory system (ours is closed)
-Plumbing in their respiratory system
What is the most diverse phylum?
Arthropods
What are characteristics intrinsic to echinoderms?
Echinoderm – “spiny skin”
****(no head)****
• Endo skeleton – made of plates\unique circulatory system – no blood – bring in sea water and utilize it called: water vascular system
• Unique symmetry: bilateral Larva, Adults – penta radial (5 base) ex: sea stars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins. Ex: fig 22.32 pg 470
• Pentamerous or penta – radial
• Tells us that they developed unique symmetry over time and are related to a bi-lateral symmetric org.
What is cephalization?
• Cephalization – anterior (head) and posterior (tail)
What are the exoskeletons of arthropods composed of?
made of chitin & calcium salts
Are arthropods invertebrates or vertebrates?
arthropods invertebrates because they lack a back bone. The have an exoskeleton
*32) What are the characteristics of a chordate?
chordates (phylum Chordata) are animals which are either vertebrates or one of several closely related invertebrates. They are united by having, for at least some period of their life cycle, a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail.

****How many chordates ar there?
*What is the purpose of a bony vertebral column?
The Vertebral Column (Spinal Column) supports the head and encloses the spinal cord.
*What is an ectotherm?
Ectotherms, sometimes called 'cold blooded' animals, are poorly insulated and produce metabolic heat at a low rate compared with endotherms. They also lose heat to cooler surroundings quickly. High thermal conductance, however, allows ectotherms to absorb heat readily from the environment. It is mostly through behavioural mechanisms that ectotherms regulate body temperature, for example, by basking in the sun or burrowing under ground.
What is an endotherm?
Endotherms, sometimes called ‘warm blooded’ animals, generate body heat as a by-product of metabolism. They often elevate their body temperatures to above ambient temperature and most produce metabolic heat at a high rate. Most endotherms have fur, feathers or fat as a form of insulation and this allows them to conserve heat.
*Are hagfish composed of mineralized bone?
HAgfish lack mineralized tissues and teeth and are the only living animals that have a skull but not a vertebral column.
*Are Tuna composed of mineralized bone?
Tuna share with the ingroup taxa an internal mineralized skeleton composed of calcium phosphate (bone), while sharks have an internal skeleton composed entirely of non-mineralized cartilage, not bone.
*What is the defining characteristic of a ray-finned fish?
Ray-finned fish possess the following basic characteristics:<br><br>bony skeleton - the skeleton of ray-finned fishes is made up of true bone<br><br>95% of fish have bone skeletons<br><br>You need to know what fish is not a ray fined fish (I didnt know)<br>Salmon<br>Trout<br>Lungfish<br>catfish<br>eels


****What percentage of vertabtes are fish****
*39) What is the only extant lobe-finned fish?
The coelacanths
*In what period did the first reptiles arise?
carboniferous period
*41) What are key characteristics to reptiles?
*** they are cold blooded***
*** Were reptiles the first four legs animals? ( I didnt know)
They are ectothermic vertebrates.

2. Their skin has scales, but no hair or feathers.

3. They have three-chambered hearts (except for alligators and crocodiles, which have four-chambered hearts).
*42) What is the purpose of feathers?
warmth, protection, flight, attractive adornment for courtship, and sex recognition.
*What are Ratites?
large, flightless birds
*44) In what period did the first mammals arise?
Mammals evolved during the Triassic period

*** also asked something about, if the organisms formed in the Cambrian period were the ancesters of most life today ( I didnt know)
*45) What are monotremes?
Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials
*What are marsupials?
Kangaroos

They have pouches
*What are the key characteristics of a mammal?
****Do not have 2 chambered hearts*****

All mammals are warm blooded.

Most young are born alive.

They have hair or fur on their bodies.

Every mammal is a vertebrate.

All mammals have lungs to breathe air.

Mammals feed milk to their babies.
*48) Are chordates vertebrates or invertebrates?
Are considered BOTH vertebrates or invertebrates
*49) What is an amnion?
The amnion is a membrane building the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects an embryo.

I think there was some about how it attaches to something but it was pretty easy
What part of the brain does Huntington's Dz effect?
caudate nucleus-I dont remember if this was on the test