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42 Cards in this Set

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ADP (ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE)
a common high energy molecule in cells
AMINO ACID
building blocks for which proteins are made. a low pH protein. Only 20 known.
ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE)
nucleotide that supplies energy for reactions Immediate energy for cells.
CARBOHYDRATE
energy source in living things. compunds that store sugars (energy). Simple & Complex
CELLULOSE
most abundant carb but you can't digest it
DENATURED
when protein loses its natural shape and function. YOu denature it by heating or changing pH. This is unfolding the protein.
ENZYME
molecule that speeds a biochemical reactions. Can build things up or break them down.
FAT
Lipid. molecule that contains glycerol & fatty acids
FATTY ACID
molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain- ends with acid
GLUCOSE
simple sugar C6H1206
WHAT ELEMENTS ARE IN SUGARS
C H20- carbond, hydrogen, oxygen
3 CLASSES OF SUGARS
monosaccharides- glucose
dissacharides- lactose
polysacharides- starch
ALL SUGARS ARE CARBOHYDRATES
TRUE OR FALSE?
TRUE
LIPIDS
Fats. Long term storage and tremendous amounts of energy. Don't mix with water, great way to store energy.
UNSATURATED FATS HOLD LESS STORED ENERGY THAN SATURATED.

TRUE OR FALSE
True. Unsaturated has double bonds between carbon and saturated lacks this.
GLOBULAR MOLECULES
Proteins that are solid and strong. important for structure and in stress (like hair, nails, cartilidge)
PEPTIDE BOND
holds amino acids together and forms proteins
ANTIBODIES
A protein. defend our bodies from disease
WHERE IS ENERGY STORED?
In bonds between atoms
GLYCOGEN
how glucose is stored in animals
POLYPEPTIDE
chain of amino acids (longer and unstable)
STARCH
storage polysaccharide found in plants
TRIGLYCERIDE
fats & oils
COMPOUNDS
are of tremendous biological importance, they promote healing, carry messages, store energy
WHAT COMPOUNDS STORE ENERGY?
Sugars C6 H12 )6 glucose
energy is stored in the bonds between the atoms
RELEASED ENERGY
is given off in heat and measured in calories
TYPES OF SUGARS
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
TYPES OF MONOSACCHARIDES
glucose (animal) fructose (fruit)
SHORT TERM
TYPES OF DISACCHARIDES
Lactose & sucrose
TYPES OF POLYSACCHARIDES
Glycogen (animals) and cellulose (plants)
VERY LONG TERM
KITEN
Crunchy parts of starchy polysaccharides on outide of bugs, crabs, lobsters
ALL SUGARS ARE KNOWN AS?
Carbohydrates
Example of a SATURATED FAT
solid fats like shortening
Example of an UNSATURATED FAT
liquid fats like olive oil
PROTEIN
Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of one or more chains of amino acids.
WHY ARE PROTEINS IMPORTANT?
Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells and include many substances, such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, that are necessary for the proper functioning of an organism. They are essential in the diet of animals for the growth and repair of tissue.
WHERE ARE PROTEINS FOUND?
In structural components of anmals like muscles, hair, fingernails
LIST 3 PROTEINS
Hormones, antibodies, and enzymes
HORMONES
Proteins that carry messages in the body
PEPTIDE
short chain of amino acids
STRUCTURE OF PROTEIN
1) Primary- sequence of amino acids
2) Secondary- folding polypeptides into spirals
3) Tertiary- further folding, more complex
4) Quaternary- muliple polypeptides fit together
UNFOLDING A PROTEIN IS CALLED?
Denaturing