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39 Cards in this Set

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Subduction zones
the forward edge of a moving plate that sinks into the mantle and is destroyed.
sympatric speciation
origin of a new speciation in in populations that overlap geographically
plate tectonics
concept that the Earth's crust is divided into a number of rigid plates whose movements account for continental drift.
vestigial structures
remains of a structure that was functional in come ancestor but is no longer functional in the organism in question
arboreal
living in trees
stereoscopic
three dimensional vision
endothermic
maintenance of a constant boy temperature independant of the enviromental temperature
ectothermic
having a body temperature that varies according to the enviromental termperature.
adaptive radiation
evolution of several species from a common ancestor into ecological or geographical zones.
allopatric speciation
origin of new species between populations that are separted geographically
assortative mating
occurs when individuals tend to mate with those that have the same phenotype with respect to characteristics
prosimians
group of primates that includes lemures, and tarsiers and may resemble the 1st primates to have evolved.
bottleneck effect
the cause of genetric drift occurs when a majority of genotypes are prevented from participation in the prodution of the next generation ex: natural disaster or human interference
Carboniferous period
age of great coal forming forests, club mosses. Horsetails flourish. This is the age of the amphibians and the 1st reptiles
chromosome mutation
alteration in the chromosome structure or number typical of the species
cytochrome c
is a protein that is found in all aerobic organisms so its sequence has been determined for a number of different organisms.
Curvier
zoologist 1st to use comparative anatomy to develop a system of classifying animals
Founder effect
cause of genetic drift due to the conolization by a limited number of individuals who have different gene frequencies than the parent population
gene mutation
altered gene whose sequence of bases differ from the previous sequence
genetic drift
evolution due to the random change in the allelic frequencies of a population more likely to occur in small populations or when only a few individuals of a large population reproduce.
gestation
periodof time from conception to birth
scala naturae
a sequential ladder of life. Simplest and most material on the lowest rung of ladder. Most complex spiritual being is on the highest rung. Linnaeous believed human beings occupird the lowest rung of the ladder.
homologuus structures
in evolution a structure that is similar in differnet types of organisms because these organisms are derived from a common ancestor
relative dating
determining the age of fossils by noting their sequential relationships in strata.
agnathans-vertebraes
lack jaws
tetrapods
four footed vertebrase. Includes amphibians, birds, reptiles and mammals
Lamarck
st biologist to believe evolution does occur and to link diversity with adaptation to the environment
Mssozoic era
during this era flowering plants,Conifers and cycads dominate. Placental mammal , modern insect groups,1st dinosaur and 1st mammal appear. Corals and molluscs dominate the sea. Dinosaur flourish and birds appear during this time.
microevolution
accumulation of small changes in gene pool over a relatively short period of two or more generations.
Natural selection
mechanism of evolution caused by enviromental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce:results in adaptation of the enviroment.
neogene period
modern humans appear and herbaceous plants spread and diversify.
nocturnal
awake at night, most activity at night.
temporal isolation
two species can live in the same locale, but if each reproduces at a different time of year, they do not attempt to mate.
ordovician period
non vascular plants are abundant. Marine algae flourish.Invertebrates spread and diversify; jawless fish appear.
speciation
origin of new species due to the evolutionary process of descent with modification
anthropoids
group of primates that includes monkeys, apes and humans
protocell
in biological evolution, a possible cell forerunner that became a cell once it acquired genes
stabilizing selection
outcome of natural selection in which extreme phenotypes are eliminated and the average phenotype is conserved.
Linneaus
invented the binomial system