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39 Cards in this Set

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What were the first known photosynthetic organisms?
cyanobacteria
Georges Cuvier
- one of the first to propose extinction of species
-stated that there must have been catastrophic events that occur periodically
-wiped many creatures out at once
-other creatures migrated and filled up space
Charles Lyell and James Hutton
-proposed continuous slow change
Lamark's
-used or did not use a particular body feature, determined what would get passed on.

ex. giraffe stretches neck, giraffes with longer necks, would have offspring with long necks
Charles Darwin
-hired as specimen collector on the voyage of the beagle
-creatures on different land masses were different

-species seemed related to each other when closer together
Do similarities or differences show common ancestry?
similarities
Do similarities or differences show adaptations?
differences
Natural selection
causes change the ones that are suited to their environments and they will have more offspring that survive
Example of natural selection
1) population with varied inherited traits
2)elimination of individuals with certain traits
3)reproduction of survivors
4)increasing frequency of traits enhance survival and reproductive success.
Genomics
looking at the whole set of genes within an organism
Bioinformatics
using computers and biology to mine data from huge sets of information to try to find commonalities among things
Human Genome Project
-started in 1990
-work as a team and sequence entire human genome
-genetic mapping ---> physical mapping ----> DNA sequence
Shot Gun Method
cut w/ endonucleases, sequence each fragment and use computer to find overlaps
Smaller genomes and small collection of genes
bacteria
large organisms with larger genomes, which allows for more mutation
eukaryotes
comparing genome sequences
1% difference between humans and chimps at genetic level

- virtually no differences between humans
Camouflage exhibited by mantids is an example of what?
adaptation of species to its niche
Various cultivated vegetables are all descended from wild mustard. What is this an example of?
artificial selection
Mammalian forelimbs are examples of what?
homologous structures
What forms found in the fossil record support Darwin's theory of evolution?
transitional forms
What does natural selection act on?
heritable variation in populations
artificial selection
breeding individuals that have desired traits
homology
related species can have characteristics with underlying similarity even though they have different functions
vestigal structure
remnants of features that served important functions in organisms ancestors
convergent evolution
independent evolution of similar features in different lineages
geographic variation
differences in the genetic composition of separate populations
genetic drift
process in which chance events cause unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next most pronounced in small populations
gene flow
transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to the movement of fertile individuals
directional selection
occurs when conditions favor individuals exhibiting one extreme or phenotypic range. thereby shifting characteristics one way or another
disruptive selection
occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of a phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotypes
stabilizing selection
acts against both extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variations
sexual selection
individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than others to obtain mates
microevolution
changes over time in allele frequencies in a population
macroevolution
broad pattern of evolution over long spans of time
reproductive isolation
existence of biological factors that impede members of two species from producing viable, fertile offspring
prezygotic barrier
block fertilization from occurring
sympatric speciation
speciation occurs in populations that live in the same geographic area
hybrid zone
region where members of different species meet and mate
allopatric speciation
speciation that occurs in populations in different geographic areas