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14 Cards in this Set

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what are some human infections due to biofilm?
Nosocomial Infections
ICU Pneumonia Sutures
Contact Lenses
Urinary Catheter Cystitis
IUD's
Central Venous Catheters
Mechanical Heart Valves
Vascular Grafts
Othopedic Devices
Penile Protheses
Others
Dental Caries
Ostitis Media
Musculoskeletal Infections
Necrotizing fasciitis
Osteomyletis
Bacterial Prostatitis
Native Valve Endocarditis
Cystic Fribrosis
Pneumonia
something prevents bacterial colonization. what is this called and which bacteria counteract against this? and how?
fibronectin. staph aureus / strep pyogenes make fibronectin-binding proteins
which bacteria have protein A?
staph aureus, strep pneumoniae
how does e.coli overcome resistance to nitric oxide?
e.coli produces flavohemoglobulin that converts NO into NO3- (nitrate)
superantigen causes which symptoms to arise? what are some other characteristic properties? what are some examples?
fever, diarrhea, vomiting.
contributes to autoimmune disease. forms large clones that react to self.
• Staphylococcal enterotoxin that causes food poisoning
• Staphylococcal toxin that causes toxic shock syndrome.
• Streptococcal toxin associated with the flesh eating strain of Streptococcus pyogenes.
• An unknown supernatant component from certain Mycoplasma
• Viral superantigens also exist
what are the different stages of shock?
- SIRS: >38*C or <36*C, HR >90, tachypnea, very high or very low neutrophil count
- sepsis = SIRS + proof of infxn
- severe sepsis = above + organ failure, hypotension
- septic shock = even IV fluids don't help.
what happens upon lysis of a G- bacteria?
Lysis of G- bacteria --> LPS released, binds to LPS-binding protein --> complex activates CD14-TLR-4 on MP --> cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, PAF). MAINLY, it activates the hageman system:
- activation of clotting cascade: fibrinogen --> fibrin --> clots walls off infection. In sepsis, hemorraging and organ failure.
- complement cascade: inflammation, production of inflammatory mediators. In sepsis, might get leakage and hypotension
- fibrinolytic pathway: plasminogen --> plasmin (unclotting). Sepsis, hemmoryhal. Internal bleeding
- kininogen: incr bradykini bla hbalh
applications of quorum sensing
competence induction
conjugal transfer of genetic material by Agrobacterium tumefaciens
production of toxins and other factors by Staph. aureus.
synthesis and release of virulence factors.
development of aerial mycelia and production of streptomycin by streptomyces griseus
antibiotic production by some org.
stimulation of sporulation in B. subtilis
biofilm
bioluminescence
what can bacillus cereus do?
can cause serious eye infection. also can cause food poisoning (via enterotoxin, heat-stable). ==> diarrhea, nausea, abd. cramps.
what is cephalosporin?
beta-lactam like penicillin.
what is the antibiotic treatment for c. difficile
flagyl (metronidazole) ==> selective for anaerobic bacteria and protozoan. reduces its nitro grp to ferrodoxin --> damages DNA --> inhibits nucleic acid synthesis. If this doesn't work, use vancomycin.
what bacteria is found in alkaline food
c. botulinum
what organisms are found in soil?
listeria, bacillus, clostridium
how does clostiridum perfringens cause necrosis?
has phospholipase C (alpha-lecithinase). converts lecithins into phosphorylcholine + diglyceride) also sphingomyelin --> cell lysis --> membrane disruption