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155 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organism
a living thing
Biology
the science of life
Differentation
The process by which cells become different from each other as they multiplied and followed their genetic instructions
Unicelluelar Organism
a single cell organism
Multicellular Organism
an organism containing many cells
Homeostasis
a stable level of internal conditions
Natural Selection
the theory that organisms have certain favorable traits to help them survive
Autotrophs
organisms that obtain their energy by making their own food
Heterotrophs
organisms that must take in food to meet their energy needs
Atom
the simplest part of an element that retains all properties of that element
Nucleus
the central core of all atoms that contains the protons and neutrons
Proton
a particle of an atom with a positive electrical charge
Neutron
a particle of an atom with no electrical charge
Electron
a particle of an atom with a negative electrical charge
Atomic Number
the number of protons in an atom
Compound
a pure substance that is made up of to or more atoms
Bonds
attachments
Covalent Bond
when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
ionic bond
when electrons are exchanged between two atoms
Molecule
the simplest part of a substance that retains all properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
Ion
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
Energy
the ability to do work
Free energy
the energy in a system that is available for work
Reactants
substances that undergo reactions to form a product
Product
the end result of the reactants
Exergonic Reactions
chemical reactions that involve a net release of free energy
Endergonic
chemical reactions that involve a net absorbtion of free energy
Activation Energy
the energy needed to start a reaction
catalysts
chemical substances that reduce the activation energy needed for a reaction
Enzyme
the most common type of catalysts
Reduction-Oxidtaion Reaction
(Redox Reaction) When oxidation and reduction reactions take place
Oxidation Reaction
a reaction in which the reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge
Reduction Reaction
a reaction in which the reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming more negative in charge
Solution
a mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance
Solute
the substance dissolved in the solution
Solvent
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
Saturated Solution
a solution in which no more solute can be dissolved
Aqueous Solutions
solutions in which water is the solvent
Dissociation
the breaking apart of a water molecule into two ions of the opposite charge
Hydroxide Ion
OH-
Hydroniam Ion
H+
Acid
a solution in which the number of Hydronium ions is greater than the number of hydroxide ions
Base(Alkaline)
a solution in which the number of hydroxide ions is greater than the number of hydronium ions
pH scale
a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium and and hydroxide ions in a solution
Buffers
chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base
Polar Compound
a compound that has an uneven pattern of charge
Hydrogen Bond
the type of attraction that holds two water molecules together
Cohesion
an attractive force between particles of the same kind
Adhesion
an attractice force between unlike substances
Capillarity
the ability of water to move upward through narrow tubes against the force of gravity
Organic Compounds
compounds that contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other carbons atoms and elements
Functunal Groups
clusters of atoms
alcohol
an organic compound with a hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms
Monomers
simple molecules that create larger molecules
Polymers
repeated, linked units of monomers
Macromolecules
large polymers
Condensation Reaction
a chemical reaction that links monomers to form polymers
Hydrolysis
the breakdown of complex molecules, such as polymers
ATP
the form of energy that cells use
Carbohydrates
organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Monosaccharide
the monomer of a carbohydrate
Isomers
compounds that share a single chemical formula but have different forms
Disaccharide
two monosaccharides linked through a condensation reaction
Polysaccharide
a complex molecule composed of three of more monosaccharides
Proteins
organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Amino Acid
the monomer of proteins
Dipeptide
two amino acids combined through a condenstation reaction
Peptide Bond
the covalent bond that is formed through the condensation reaction of two amino acids
Polypeptide
a long chain of amino acids
Substrate
the reactant being catalyzed by an enzyme
Lipids
large, nonpolar molecules that do not dissolve in water
Fatty Acids
unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
Hydrophillic
the attraction of polar molecules to water (water loving)
Hydrophobic
the non-interaction of non-polar molecules to water (water fearing)
Triglyceride
three molecules of fatty-acid joined to one molecule of alcohol glyceride
Phospholipids
two fatty-acids joined by a molecule of glycerol
Wax
a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
Steroid
a lipid composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
Nucleic Acids
very large and complex organic molecules that store important information in the cell
Nucleotide
the monomer of nucleic acids
RNA
a nucleic acid that stores and transfers information that is essential for the manufactoring of proteins
DNA
a nucleic acid that contains information that is essential for almost all cell activities
Cell
the smallest unit of matter that can carry on all of the processes of life
Cell Theory
1) All living things are composed of cells
2)Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism
3)Cells only come from other cells
Organelles
a cell component that performs specific functions for the cell
Cell Membrane
the membrane that surrounds cells
Nucleus
the large organelle in the center of a cell that contains the majority of the cell's genetic information and directs most of the cell's activities
Eukaryotes
organisms whose cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
Prokaryotes
organisms whose cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
Selectively Permeable
the ability of letting only some substances cross a boundary
Peripheral Proteins
proteins that are attached to the surface of the cell membrane
Integral Proteins
proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane
Cytoplasm
the combination of cytosol and the organelles of the cell
Cytosol
the gelatin-like aqueous fluid inside of a cell
Mitochondria
the site of chemical reactions that transfer energy from organic compunds to ATP
Cristae
the many folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Ribosomes
the most numerous organelles that are made of RNA and protein and are used for the synthesis of proteins
Enodoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
the cell's system of membraneous tubules and sacs
1)rough-covered with ribosomes
2)smooth-lacks ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus
the processing, packaging, and secreting organelle of the cell
Lysosomes
small, spherical organelles that destroy and digest substances
Cytoskeleton
a network of long protein strands located in the cytosol
1)microfilaments
2)microtubules
Cilia and Flagella
Small hairlike organelles that extend from the surface of the cell and assist in movement
Chromatin
a combination of DNA and protein located in the nucleus of the cell
Nucleolus
the site of protein synthesis located in the nucleus of the cell
Cell Wall
the rigid and tough wall surrounding plant cells
Chloroplasts
the organelle in plant cells in which the energy from sunlight is converted into chemical energy (food)
Thylakoids
a system of flattened, membraneous sacs located in chloroplasts
Passive Transport
the movement of substances across a membrane without the use of energy
Diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Concentration Gradient
the difference in the concentration of molecules across a space
Equilibrium
when the concentration of molecules is the same throughout a space
Osmosis
the diffusion of water
Hypotonic
when the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the concentration in the cytosol
Hypertonic
when the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the concentration in the cytosol
Isotonic
when the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal
Contractile Vacuoles
organelles that remove water from cells
Turgor Pressure
the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
Plasmolysis
the shrinking of plant cells due to a hypertonic solution
Cytolysis
the bursting of cells do to a hypotonic solution
Facilitated Diffusion
the movement of molecules across a membrane using carrier proteins
Carrier Proteins
proteins that assist in facilitated diffusion
Ion Channels
small passagways that allow ions to cross the cell membrane
Active Transport
the movement of cells up their concentration gradient using energy
Sodium-Potassium Pump
a pump used in facilitated diffusion to allow sodium and potassium to cross the cell membrane
Endocytosis
the process by which cells ingest external substances
Vesicle
pouches that are used to move substances in the cell
Pinocytosis
endocytosis that involves the movement of solutes or fluids
Phagocytosis
endocytosis that involves the movement of large particles or whole cells
Exocytosis
the reverse of endocytosis, used to release particles from the cell
Photosynthesis
the process by which light energy is taken and stored within organic compounds
Biochemical Pathway
a series of linked reactions
Grana
stacks of thylakoids
Stroma
the solution surrounding the thylakoids of chloroplasts
Pigment
a compound that absorbs light
Chlorophyll
the most important pigments used in photosynthesis
Accessory Pigments
pigments that assist other pigments in capturing light
Photosystem
a cluster of pigment molecules
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
a series of molecules that transfer electrons to each other
NADP+
an organic molecule that accepts electrons during the redox reactions of photosynthesis
Chemiosmosis
the synthesis of ATP
The Calvin Cycle
the bonding of carbon atoms from CO2 into organic compounds during photosynthesis
Carbon Fixation
the incorporation of CO2 into organic compounds
Cellular Respiration
the complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
Glycolysis
a biochemical pathway that braks down glucose into two pyruvates and yields some ATP
Anaerobic Pathways
pathways that occur in the absence of oxygen
Aerobic Pathways
pathways that occur in the presence of oxygen
Lactic Acid Fermentation
where the pyruvic acid from glycolysis is converted into lactic acid
Cellular Respiration
the complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
Glycolysis
a biochemical pathway that braks down glucose into two pyruvates and yields some ATP
Anaerobic Pathways
pathways that occur in the absence of oxygen
Aerobic Pathways
pathways that occur in the presence of oxygen
Lactic Acid Fermentation
where the pyruvic acid from glycolysis is converted into lactic acid
Alcoholic Fermentation
where the pyruvic acid from glycolysis is converted into ethyl alcohol and CO2
Mitochondrial Matrix
the space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
The Krebs Cycle
a biochemical pathway that breaks down acetyl CoA, producing CO2, hydrogen atoms, and ATP