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130 Cards in this Set

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what is an inorganic compound?
-a compound that does not contain carbon.

ex: salts, water, inorganic acids and inorganic bases
what is a salt?
-all ionic compounds are salts.
ex: NaCl, CaCl2
-they are all water soluble
what is an inorganic acid?
-an ionic substance that releases H+ ions when it dissolves in water
what is an inorganic base?
-an ionic substance that can bind H+ ions
-many bases will dissociate in water and release OH- (hydroxyl) ions
what are some of the properties of water which make it so common in anatomy and physiology?
-it is essential to life
-it helps maintain constant cell tempertaure because it takes up LOTS of heat before boiling
-it is the UNIVERSAL SOLVENT; more things dissolve in water than anything else
what is matter?
anything that takes up space and has mass
what is an element?
a unique chemical substance that is composed of atoms
-no 2 elements are similar
what is an atom?
the smallest pure unit of a substance
what are the 3 fundamental particles in atomic structure?
protons - positive charge
neutrons - no charge
electrons - negative charge
what is the atomic number?
the number of protons the atom has
what is the atomic mass?
how much the atom weighs. the number of protons + the number of neutrons.

-usually double the atomic number
what are orbits?
-the cloud around the nucleus where the electrons travel.
-only a certain amount of electrons fit in each orbit
what is an isotope?
an atom with a different number of neutrons in the nucleus.

-isotopes are radioactive when theres many many extra neutrons, causing them to fall off the nucleus as. the neutrons falling off the nucleus is known as radiation
what is a compound?
a chemical substance formed by 2 or more atoms.
what is a molecule?
the smallest particle of a compound that has all of the properties of that compound.

atom is to element as molecule is to compound
what is an ion?
an atom that has gained or lost electrons, thereby giving it polarity

cation - positively charged, an atom that lost electrons
anion - negatively charged, an atom that gained electrons
what is an ionic bond?
a bond formed between two particles in which an electrons jump from one particle to another in order to make complete valence shells. the particles are then considered charged ions.
ionic compounds?
-formed by ionic bonding
-mostly salts, acids and bases
-since there is no physical bonding, ionic compounds are very weak and dissociate in water very easily.
what is covalent bond?
a bond in which 2 atoms share 1, 2, or 3 electrons, thus completing both of their valence shells
-results is polar and nonpolar covalent compounds
what is non polar covalent bonding?
when all the electrons of both atoms are accounted for.

ex. 2 H atoms, each has 1 electron in its valence shell, each needs 1 electron to fill their valence shell, they each share their electron, all are electrons are accounted for. non polar
what is a polar covalent bond?
when there are electrons in 1 atom's valence shell that are not being shared.

ex. H2O. O has 6 e's in its valence, H each has 1. O shares 1 e with each of H atoms, completing their valence shells, but there are 4 more electrons left over only being used by O. this creates a negative charge on one end of the Oxygen
what is a hydrogen bond?
a bond between 2 oppositely polarized particles, OR between oppositely polarized ends of teh same molecule (which causes it to fold in on itself)

-bond of attraction, the weakest of all chemical bonds.
what is dehydration synthesis?
a chemical reaction where 2 molecules unite by losing a molecule of water
what is hydrolysis?
a chemical reaction where a molecule is broken and water is released
what is oxidation?
a chemical reactions in which a molecule loses electrons
what is reduction?
a chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons
what does anabolic mean?
refers to chemical reactions that make large molecules out of smaller particles
what does catabolic mean?
refers to chemical reactions that break down large molecules into smaller particles
what does exothermic mean?
a chemical reaction which gives off energy by breaking bonds
what does endothermic mean?
a chemical reaction in which energy must be supplied to break or form bonds
describe an acid and base exchange reation
acids and bases will combine to form a salt and water
what is pH?
-pH is a scale that measures the acidity or alkalinity or a substance.
-the scale is logorithmic; each unit is 10x greather than the previous unit
what is the range of the pH scale?
-the scale goes from 0 - 14, with 0 being the most acidic, 14 being the most alkaline and 7 being neutral.
-acidity refers to the number of H+ ions, and alkalinity refers to the number OH-(hydroxyl) ions.
-neutral means that there is an equal number of H+ and OH- ions
what is a buffer?
substance used to prevent pH changes in a solution because it binds up H+ ions
-acts like a magnet for H+ ions
what is an organic compound?
-any molecule that contains CARBON
-C can share up to 3 electrons with other C atoms, but then must bond with something else
what is an alcohol?
an organic compound with an OH- ion present
waht is an aldehyde?
an organic compound that must have carbon double bonded to oxygen, and single bonded to hydrogen

H-C=O
what is an organic acid?
must have carbon double bonded to oxygen and single bonded to OH

OH-C=O
what is a ketone?
must have carbon double bonded to oxygen

C=O
what is an amine?
must have Nitrogen present
what is an amino acid?
an organic compound that has an acid (OH-C=O) at one end and an amine at the other
what is a lipid?
-fats
-macromolecules composed of mostly carbon and hydrogen and little oxygen
-triglyceride, phospholipids, and sterols
C27 H63 O11
what is a triglyceride?
-the simplest of all lipids.
-composed of glycerol(an alcohol) and 3 fatty acids attached to the OH- ions
what is a fatty acid?
-a long chain of carbon atoms (18 - 22 atoms) with an organic acid at one end
-may be saturated or unsaturated
what is a saturated fatty acid?
the long chain of carbon atoms holds the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms possible. no double bonds between carbon atoms (if there is a double bond between 2 carbon atoms, that means there is less hydrogen atoms attached)
what is an unsaturated fatty acid?
a fatty acid that is holding less than the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms
-due to a double bond between carbon atoms
-may be monounsaturate or polyunsaturated
what is the difference between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids?
monounsaturated only has 1 double bond between carbon atoms
polyunsaturated has several double bonds between carbon atoms
what is a phospholipid?
-composed of glycerol with 2 fatty acids attached to it.
-the 3rd fatty acid is replaced with an amine (N) linked to a phosphate (PO4--)
-the 2 fatty acids form one end that is hydrophobic, and the phosphate makes the ohter end hydrophillic
-the main component of cell membranes
what is a sterol?
-a waxy, cyclic lipid
-all different sterols are derived from cholesterol
-shown drawn with the ring formation
what is a carbohydrate?
-sugars, starches, and fibers
-composed of carbon and water molecules, in a 1:1 ratio.
-for every carbon there is 1 oxygen and 2 hydrogens
C5 H10 O5
what is a pentose?
-a sugar (carbohydrate) with 5 carbon atoms.
-the 2 most important pentoses are ribose and deoxyribose
what is a hexose?
-a sugar (carbohydrate) with 6 carbon atoms

C6 H12 O6
what are the 3 biologically important isomers of the standard hexose formula?
-glucose
-fructose
-galactose
waht is an isomer?
molecules with the same chemical formula but a different arrangement of atoms
what is a monosaccharide?
-single sugars. may have 3,4, 5 carbon atoms (ribose),6 carbon atoms (glucose) or 7
waht is a disaccharide?
-2 hexoses united through dehydration synthesis
what are the 3 biologically important disaccharides?
-maltose
-sucrose
-lactose
how do you make maltose?
combine 2 glucose molecules
how do you make sucrose?
combine 1 glucose molecule and 1 fructose molecule
how do you make lactose?
combine 1 glucose molecule and 1 galactose molecule
what is a polysaccharide?
macromolecules of 500+ monosaccharides
what are 3 biologically important polysaccharides?
-starch
-glycogen
-cellulose

-all are made entirely of glucose molecules arranged in different ways
what is starch?
-polysaccharide
-synthesized by plants as a method of storing excess glucose
-long chains of glucose with some branching
what is glycogen?
-animal starch
-synthesized by the liver and muscles of animals as a way to store excess glucose
-many glucose molecules linked in a highly branching manner
what is cellulose?
-polysaccharide that forms the cell walls of plants
-long chains of glucose but with different chemical bonds than starch
what is a protein?
-macromolecules of MANY amino acids
-each protein has a unique shape that determines its specific function in the body
-comprise the building blocks of bodily functions
what are the 4 levels of protein structure?
-primary
-secondary
-tertiary
-quaternary
describe primary structure
-the number (amount) and sequence of amino acids

-there are 20 amino acids coded for by teh body
describe secondary structure
-the pattern of folding caused by intramolecular h-bonding
-results in the alpha helix shape or the beta pleated sheet
-determined by sequence of amino acids
-not water soluble becuase the hydrophobic regions of the molecule are in the inside
describe tertiary structure
-the pattern of folding caused by bydrophobic interactions and disulfide bond formation
-sulfur atoms found in certain amino acids are attracted to one another causing the molecule to fold in on itself even more, creating a globular molecule.
-EXTREMELY WATER SOLUBLE, because the hydrophillic portions are now on the outside
describe quaternary structure
-2 or more protein joining together to form one molecule
-has at least secondary structure, may or may not have tertiary structure
what are structural proteins?
-proteins that do not have tertiary structure
-the strand like secondary structure causes proteins to form strong rope like structures with other secondary structured proteins (quaternary structure)

strong structure + not water soluble = building blocks of body
-also called fibrous proteins
what are functional proteins?
-proteins taht are involved in all physiological reactions.
-they have a function in body processes: enzymes, hormones, etc
-have at least tertiary structure
-also called globular proteins
what is denaturing a protein?
-any process which alters the shape of the protein
-easily done since most folding occurs due to h-bonds

-heat
-altering pH
-heavy metals
-radiation
-alcohol
what is a hemoglobin?
2 alpha helix shaped polypeptide chains and 2 beta pleated polypeptide chains combined
what is an antibody?
2 heavy polypeptide chains and 2 light polypeptide chains combined
what is a polypeptide?
a long chain of amino acids
what are the 2 types of nucleic acids?
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid; contains hereditary info
RNA - ribonucleic acid; interprets genetic info from DNA

-each contain pentoses; the DNA pentose has 1 less oxygen atom than the RNA pentose
what are the 2 types of nitrogen bases?
Purines - form 2 double bonds
Pyrimidines - form 3 double bonds
what are the 2 types of purines?
adenine
guanine
what are the 3 types of pyrimidines?
cytosine
thymine (only in DNA)
uracil (only in RNA)
what are the 4 levels of protein structure?
-primary
-secondary
-tertiary
-quaternary
describe primary structure
-the number (amount) and sequence of amino acids

-there are 20 amino acids coded for by teh body
describe secondary structure
-the pattern of folding caused by intramolecular h-bonding
-results in the alpha helix shape or the beta pleated sheet
-determined by sequence of amino acids
-not water soluble becuase the hydrophobic regions of the molecule are in the inside
describe tertiary structure
-the pattern of folding caused by bydrophobic interactions and disulfide bond formation
-sulfur atoms found in certain amino acids are attracted to one another causing the molecule to fold in on itself even more, creating a globular molecule.
-EXTREMELY WATER SOLUBLE, because the hydrophillic portions are now on the outside
describe quaternary structure
-2 or more protein joining together to form one molecule
-has at least secondary structure, may or may not have tertiary structure
what are structural proteins?
-proteins that do not have tertiary structure
-the strand like secondary structure causes proteins to form strong rope like structures with other secondary structured proteins (quaternary structure)

strong structure + not water soluble = building blocks of body
-also called fibrous proteins
what are functional proteins?
-proteins taht are involved in all physiological reactions.
-they have a function in body processes: enzymes, hormones, etc
-have at least tertiary structure
-also called globular proteins
what is denaturing a protein?
-any process which alters the shape of the protein
-easily done since most folding occurs due to h-bonds

-heat
-altering pH
-heavy metals
-radiation
-alcohol
what is a hemoglobin?
2 alpha helix shaped polypeptide chains and 2 beta pleated polypeptide chains combined
what is an antibody?
2 heavy polypeptide chains and 2 light polypeptide chains combined
what is a polypeptide?
a long chain of amino acids
what are the 2 types of nucleic acids?
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid; contains hereditary info
RNA - ribonucleic acid; interprets genetic info from DNA

-each contain pentoses; the DNA pentose has 1 less oxygen atom than the RNA pentose
what are the 2 types of nitrogen bases?
Purines - form 2 double bonds
Pyrimidines - form 3 double bonds
what are the 2 types of purines?
adenine
guanine
what are the 3 types of pyrimidines?
cytosine
thymine (only in DNA)
uracil (only in RNA)
what are the 3 types of RNA?
mRNA
rRNA
tRNA

-all 3 types are made in the nucleus from the DNA;
-smaller than DNA making it possible for them to leave the nucleus to do their job in the cytoplasm
what is mRNA?
-messenger RNA
-it is a transcript copy of the gene that will leave the nucleus and be read and interpreted to syntehsize the specific protein
what is rRNA?
-ribosomal RNA
-in conjunction with other proteins, forms ribosomes
what is tRNA?
-transfer RNA
-each type binds one of the 20 amino acids and transports it to the ribosome, where the ribosome makes the actual protein
what is a nucleotide?
-make the DNA/RNA chains
-composed of a pentose (DNA-deoxyribose, RNA-ribose), phosphate and a nitrogen base
how are the nucleotides connected to form DNA?
-dependent on N-Base
-if the N-Base is a purine, it can only bond to a pyrimidine
-nucleotides bond to form pairs, 30,000 nucleotide pairs present in DNA
describe DNA
-double stranded molecule with 2 strands held together by h-bonds forming a double helix
-hereditary info found in triplet sequence of n-base pairs
describe RNA
-single stranded molecule
-much smaller than DNA
-folds and base pairs to itself
describe N-Base pairing
ALWAYS a purine to a pyrimidine.

ALWAYS
adenine - thymine (DNA)
adenine - uracil (RNA)
guanine - cytosine (DNA/RNA)

-the 2 nucleotide strands are connected to each other inversely
what is ATP?
-adenosine triphosphate (cell energy)
-the only usable form of energy in a cell
-composed of adenosine (adenine, ribose, phosphate) and 2 more phosphates
-unique high energy bond between 2 phosphates, ~
what is the active site?
-the place where the chemical reaction takes place
-determined by the shape of the molecule; change the shape and you change the active site
what is an endergonic chemical reaction?
a reactino in which energy is needed to form a bond
what is an exergonic chemical reaction?
a reaction in which energy is released from broken bonds
what is kinetic energy?
-the energy stored in all atoms, ions, molecules, etc..
what is brownian motion?
the constant movement by particles as a result of brownian motion.
-causes particles to constantly collide with one another
what is the rate of reaction?
the rate at which old bonds are broken and new bonds are formed
what is the energy of activation?
the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place

-some are so high or low they would never happen without outside help
what are teh forms of outside help?
stirring- moves molecules faster = more frequent & powerful collisions

heat - causes molecules to move faster

catalyst - substance which provides a surface for reactants to meet; i.e. the singles bar

enzymes - biological catalysts
what is an enzyme?
-a substance that accelerates reaction rates and decreases the energy of activation.
-composed of proteins made by the cell; most have a coenzyme and mineral present as well
-very specific
-very small amounts beacuase each can be used over and over again
what is the enzyme structure?
-apoenzyme
-coenzyme
-metal ion
what is an apoenzyme?
-the protein
-it provides the enzymes specificity, due to the unique surface of the protein
what is a co enzyme?
-a vitamin
-transports the chemical group moved from one molecule to another
what is a metal ion?
-the mineral in an enzyme
-acts as a bridge between the enzyme and the substrate
what is a substrate?
the substance being broken down by an enzyme
what is homeostasis?
the body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal conditions despite exisiting in a constantly changing outer environment
-maintained by nervous and endocrine systems
what is dynamic equilibrium?
-the fluctuation around a mean with narrow limits as opposed to a single unchanging being
-used to maintain homeostasis
what are the necessary pieces in maintaining homeostasis?
-variable
-receptor
-control center
-effector
what is a receptor?
-the part of the homeostatic system that responds to stimuli in the environment and sends message to the control center
what is the control center?
-the part of the homeostatic system that receives and interprets messages
-receives info from receptor via AFFERENT pathways, evaluates, and sends out response via EFFERENT pathways to the effector
what is the effector?
-the part of the homeostatic system that feeds back and responds to stimuli
-receives messages from the control center
what are cybernetics?
refers to the study of control systems and how they work to maintain balance
-coined by norbert weiner
what are homeostatic control mechanisms?
-the way of responding to stimuli through positive and negative feedback
what is negative feedback?
output of system shuts off original stimulus, hence moving it backwards.

ex.body is hot - sweat to push DOWN body temp
what is positive feedback?
output of system stimulates original movement of stimulus, pushing it further forward

-typically seen in diseased states

ex. body temp pushed UP to fight infection