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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is histology?
-the study of tissues
what is a tissue?
-a group of cells which have become specialized to perform one to several functions
what is embryonic tissue?
-tissue formed during the early embryonic period; these layers of tissue give rise to adult tissue

-3 types: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
what is ectoderm?
-embryonic tissue that gives rise to the nervous system and skin
-epithelium
what is mesoderm?
-embryonic tissue that gives rise to muscle and bone
-mesothelium
what is endoderm?
-embryonic tissue that gives rise to digestive, respiratory, reproductive & urinary systems
-endothelium
what are the 4 tissue groups?
-epithelium
-connective
-muscle
-nervous
what are epithelial tissue functions?
-Protection; covers all exposed surfaces, lines all cavities & hollow organs
-Secretion; forms glands & ducts of glands
-Transport; diffusion, filtration, osmosis and absorption all take place through epithelial tissue
what are characteristics of epithelial tissue?
-1 free surface (apical) and 1 attached surface (basal)
-attached to non living basement membrane on the basal side
-tightly packed cells that form rows
-No blood vessels or extracellular matrix
-nerve endings; mostly touch receptors
what is the basement membrane?
-acts as a glue to connect epithelial tissue to connective tissue
-secreted by epithelium & underlying connective tissue
how is epithelial tissue classified?
-based on the cell layers and the types of cell present
what are the 2 types of epithelial tissue layers?
-Simple; one layer of cells attached to a basement membrane
-Stratified; many layers of cells, the bottom layer attached to a basement membrane, the name is based on the type of cells in the topmost layer
what are the 3 types of epithelial cells?
-Squamous; thin flat cells, so flat that the nucleus may create a bulge; like a floor tile
-Cuboidal; cubelike cells
-Columnar; tall, rectangular cells with large oval nucleus near the basal surface
simple squamous epithelium
-one layer of squamous cells; very thin and transparent (appears shiny, like the inside of a mouth)
-present on organ exteriors
-adapted for osmosis, filtration & diffusion
-forms Serous membranes that cover organs in closed cavities and line the cavities
-found in alveoli or the lungs for gas diffusion
-found in the lining of blood vessels as endothelium for nutrient, waste & gas diffusion
simple cuboidal epithelium
-one layer of cuboidal cells
-forms ducts of glands, tubules of kidneys & follicles of glands
-adapted for absorption and secretion
-found in thyroid gland secreting thyroxine
-found in the sebaceous glands secreting sebum, used to lubricate skin
-found in kidney tubules for the reabsorption of glucose, ions, and water (this is the only spot it is used for absoprtion)
simple columnar epithelium
-one layer of columnar cells
-has cell modifications to aid function: goblet cells, cilia, microvilli
-used for secretion of mucous & enzymes
-forms mucous membranes lining cavities open to the exterior of body
-digestive system lining
what are goblet cells?
-cells found in between columnar cells
-secret mucous
what is cilia?
-found of top of cells
-used to move debris along mucociliatory escalator; debris sticks to mucous and is moved away by cilia
what are microvilli?
-highly folded plasma membrane increases surfaces for absorption (such as in small intestine)
-more folds = more material in a small space
what is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (PSCCEwGC)?
-one layer of columnar cells with irregular sizes, appearing stratified
-always has goblet cells and cilia
-creates mucociliatory escalator
-found lining trachea and bronchi; secretes mucous to trap dirt/dust/bacteria and prevent respiratory infections
what is stratified squamous epithelium?
-multilayered tissue with bottom layer connected basement membrane
-used for secretion & protection
-2 types: keratinized and non keratinized
-only uppermost layer of cells are squamous
what is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
-stratified squamous epithelium with heavy deposits of waxy keratin protein
-waterproof, abrasion resistant
-forms skin
what is non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
-no keratin protein
-usually moist, withstands abrasion
-lines mouth, anus and vagina for lubrication & protection (reduces friction damage)
what is stratified cuboidal epithelium?
-very rare tissue
-uppermost cells are cuboidal, lower cells are columnar
-used for protection & secretion
-found in conjunctiva or eye and the ducts of apocrine sweat glands
what is stratified columnar epithelium?
-rare tissue
-used for protection & secretion
-found lining the pharynx (the tube running from the nose to the esophagus) and the epiglottis (elastic covering at back of throat; covers trachea when swallowing)
what is trasitional epithelium?
-uppermost cells are cuboidal with puffy, rounded looking tops
-adapted for stretching; cells appear squamous when stretched out
-lines organs that stretch; the bladder and the ureters
what is the function of connective tissue?
-STRUCTURAL tissue
-support, protection, energy storage, fight infection, carry oxygen
what are the characteristics of connective tissue?
-scattered cells, that are NOT touching
-non living, extracellular matrix, secreted by cells
-many fibers
-highly vascular (except cartilage, tendons & ligaments)
-has nerves
what is mesenchyme?
-embryonic tissue that all connective tissue develops from
-also present in adult; serving to replenish supply of other types of connective tissue
what are the connective tissue cells?
-fibroblasts
-adipocytes
-macrophages
-plasma cells
-mast cells
-osteocytes
-chondrocytes
-erythrocytes
-leukocytes
-thrombocytes
what is a fibroblast?
-the basic fundamental connective tissue cell
-star shaped
-secretes fibers
-essential for wound healing
what is an adipocyte?
-a cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat
what is a macrophage?
-a white blood cell
-resident tissue phagocyte; active in the inflammatory reaction
what is a plasma cell?
-a white blood cells
-specialized to secrete antibodies which fight infection
what are mast cells?
-white blood cells
-derived from basophil; a white blood cell which secretes heparin & histamine which promote inflammation
what are osteocytes?
-mature bone cells
what are chondrocytes?
-cartilage cells
what are erythrocytes?
-red blood cells
what are leukocytes?
-white blood cells
what are thrombocytes?
-platelets
what is the extracellular matrix?
-the nonliving material present in connective tissue that is secreted by living cells
-can be hard (bone), liquid (plasma/blood), or gel (hard or soft made of glycosaminoglycans GAG's)
what are glycosaminoglycans?
-polysaccharides with amino acids (chondroitin sulfate & hyaluronic acid)
-these substances also serve as cell glue that anchors connective tissue to epithelial tissue
what are the connective tissue fibers?
-collagen
-elastic
-reticular
what are reticular fibers?
-very fine fibers arranged in networks
what are collagen fibers?
-fibers composed of collagen protein
-very tough and strong; provide strength
-deposited in parallel bundles
what are elastic fibers?
-fibers composed to elastin protein; can undergo shape changes
-wavy & interlaced
-form networks
-provide elasticity
what are the embryonic connective tissues?
-mesenchyme; cell type that gives rise to all connective tissues
-mucous; also called whartons jelly, found in umbilical cord & under skin, gone after the 1st month of life
what are the 3 types of adult connective tissues?
-cartilages: hyaline, elastic & fibrocartilage
-loose connective tissue: adipose, areolar & reticular
-dense connective tissue: dense white fibrous, elastic, dense irregular
what is the structure of hyaline cartilage?
-pearly (bluish white) in color
-clear, firm gel matrix (swiss cheese background)
-no noticeable fibers
-lacunae present (holes in gel matrix containing chondrocytes)
-perichondrium: tough protective fibrous membrane covering cartilage
what are the 2 types of hyaline cartilage growth?
-appositional: surface growth, usually due to an injury, chondroblasts in perichondrium secrete matrix on surface and become trapped (now known as chondrocytes)
-interstitial: chondrocytes in lacunae deposit more gel onto walls of the lacuna
where is hyaline cartilage located?
-ribs, trachea, larynx, nose, articular cartilage(found at the ends of long bones)
-most of the fetal skeleton is made of hyaline cartilage
elastic cartilage structure
-like hyaline cartilage, but stretchier
-clear firm gel matrix -chondroblasts form tissue -elastic fibers increase flexibility
elastic cartilage location
-epiglottis, pinna (the part of the ear that gets pierced), auditory tube (eustacian; regulates ear pressure), the larynx
fibrocartilage structure
-like hyaline, but LOTS of collagen, making it very strong
-clear firm gel matrix (swiss cheese with celerty)
-collagen fibers increase strength, making fibrocartilage able to withstand extremely heavy compression
fibrocartilage location
-intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, semilunar discs or knee
what are loose connective tissues proper?
-areolar
-adipose
-reticular
what is areolar tissue?
-the body's "packing material"
-soft gel matrix, like jell-o in texture
-reticular, elastic and collagen fibers
-all CT cells, but blood and bone cells; essential in wound repair
-found in hypoderms & subcutaneous superficila fascia
what is reticular connective tissue?
-mostly made of fibers, not found in large amounts
-soft gel matrix
-reticular fibers in dense networks
-fibroblasts secrete matrix and fibers
-support tissue for soft organs
-forms stroma (internal framework) or soft organs such as the spleen, liver, pancreas and lymph nodes
what is adipose tissue?
-fat tissue
-has NO matrix and NO visible fibers
-major tissue responding to insulin signal to store excess glucose
-adipose cells dont divide; the number of cells stays constant but existing cells get bigger which leads to weight gain
-used to cushion and protect; provide insulation and energy storage
-found in hypodermis, packing around kidney, packing behind the eye and other organs
what are the dense connective tissues?
-dense irregular connective tissue
-dense regular connective tissue (white fibrous)
-elastic connective tissue
what is dense irregular connective tissue?
-like areolar tissue, but more fibers making it tougher
-soft gel matrix
-used to provide strength
-found in dermis of skin
what is dense regular connective tissue (white fibrous)?
-tissue providing strength
-soft gel matrix
-parallel bundles or collagen
-found in deep fascia(the wrappings of nerves and muscles) tendons, ligaments, outer layer of eyeball, joint capsules
what is elastic connective tissue?
-soft gel matrix
-elastic fibers are all disorganized
-found in arteries, veins, vocal cords
what are the 2 special connective tissues?
-bone
-blood
what is retroperitoneal?
-organs suspended between the body wall and the parietal peritoneum
-kidneys and pancreas