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44 Cards in this Set

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what are the functions of the integumentary system?
-to prevent dehydration
-to protect from injury
-defense against microorganisms
-regulate body temperature
-make vitamin D
-sensation
what is the structure of the integumentary system?
-epidermis
-dermis
-hypodermis
epidermis
-the outermost layer of the integumentary system
-made up of stratified squamous epithelial cells
-no blood vessels
-contains specialized keratinocytes and melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans' cells
dermis
-deep to the epidermis
-made up of support tissues, fibers and papillae
hypodermis
-adipose and areolar tissue below the dermis
-not part of the skin
what are the epidermal layers?
-stratum basale
-stratum spinosum
-stratum granulosum
-stratum lucidium
-stratum corneum
what is the stratum basale?
-the deepest layer of the epidermis
-contains dividing cuboidal cells and melatonin containing cells
what is the stratum spinosum?
-made up of polyhedral cells and pre-keratin filaments
-only some cell division
what is the stratum granulosum?
-darkly staining, dying cells
what is the stratum lucidium?
-dead cells; contain no nuclei
-transparent layer
-found only in "thick" skin; the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet
what is the stratum corneum?
-the uppermost layer of the epidermis
-made of stratified squamous cells
-keratin containing, dead cells
-constantly shed
what are the dermal layers?
-the papillary layer
-the reticular layer
what is the papillary layer?
-the upper layer of the dermis
-composed of areolar tissue
-attached to the stratum basale of the epidermis
-contains capillaries, free nerve endings, and meissner's corpuscles
-tough connective tissue with lots of collagen and elastic making it strong and stretchy
what is the reticular layer?
-thick, deeper dermal layer
-mostly collagen and elastic fibers
-other accessories also present
what are the accessory structures of the dermal layer?
-nails
-hair
-smooth muscle
-oil/sebaceous glands
-sweat glands
-blood vessels
-sensory nerve endings
hair
-follicle formed of stratum basale
-bulb, root, and shaft
smooth muscle in the dermis
-arector pilli muscle
-attached to hair follicle, raises hair to upright position
sebaceous glands
-found near hair follicles
-secretions moisten and soften skin
sweat glands
-secret sweat, help in temperature regulation
-formed from stratum basale
eccrine gland
-smaller sweat gland
-secretes water and salt ions
-found all over body
apocrine gland
-larger in size
-secretes fatty and proteinous substances, rich in nutrients
-found in armpits and groin
blood vessels in dermal layer
-supply nutrients
-remove waste
-assist in temperature regulation
sensory nerve endings
-sense heat, cold, touch, deep pressure, vibration
skeletal system functions
-protection; encases most body organs
-support; allows body positions
-movement; muscles attach to bones for movement
-mineral reservoir; calcium and phosphorous deposits
-hemopoiesis; production of red blood cells and platelets in red bone marrow
-energy storage; in yellow bone marrow (adiopose tissue)
bone
-hard inorganic matrix of calcium salts
-osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
bone classifications
-compact
-spongy
-long
-short
-flat
-irregular
compact bone
-dense, solid bone
-forms shafts and ends
-contains marrow space
spongy bone
-softer and lighter bone
-trabeculae, ends and cranial bones, red marrow
long bones
-bones that are longer than they are wide
-consist of a diaphysis and epiphysis
-tibia/fibia, femur, digital bones
short bones
-bones that are wider than they are short
-carpals and tarsals
flat bones
-bones that are thin and flat
-cranial bones
irregular bones
-bones that are different from all the other bones
-pelvic bones
diaphysis
-tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones
-composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
medullary cavity
-cavity contained in the center of long bones
-contains yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue)
epiphysis
-expanded ends of long bones
-exterior is compact bone, interior is spongy bone
-joint surface is covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage
-site of hemopoiesis
-diaphysis separated by epiphyseal line
structure of compact bone
-haversian system (osteon)
-osteocytes
-lacunae
-canaliculi
haversian system (osteon)
-structural unit of compact bone
-lamella, a ring of bone deposited by row of osteoblasts
-haversian canal, central canal containig blood vessels and nerves
osteocytes
mature bone cells
lacunae
small cavities in the bone that contain osteocytes
canaliculi
harilike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
skeletal cartilage
-elastic
-fibrocartilage
-hyaline
elastic cartilage
-very flexible due elastic fibers
-found external ear and epiglottis
fibrocartilage
-tensil strength to withstand heavy compression
-rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of collagen fibers
-found in intervertebral discs
hyaline cartilage
-forms most skeletal cartilage
-sturdy support
-has only collagen fibers