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72 Cards in this Set

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What is IgG commonly found
It is found in the Anitibodies and Bloodstream
What role does FSH and LH play in the female reproductive system.
FSH stimulates the folicle
LH Produces Estrogen and matures the Folicle
What is the Germ Line theory?
The immune system is inherited from your parents
Where is the IgD commonly found?
It is found in the B-cells
What is the function of the Seroli Cell?
it Protects and nurishes the sperm
Define Sarcoma
A cancer which effects the dense tissurefibers (ie bone, muscles, and connective tissues).
What is the Cell that protects and nurishes the sperm?
The Sertoli Cell
What are the three types of sexual reproduction?
Ovipariety; Viviparity; Ovoviviparity
Where do the Sperm learn to swim?
Epididymus
What are the four types of Asexual reproduction?
Fission, Budding, Fragmentation, Parthenogenesis
What is the pathways of developement for the Ovum?
Primortial germ cell
Matures into a oogonium
undergoes Mitosis
Primary Oocyte
undergoes Meiosis I
Secondary Oocyte & 1st PolarBody
undergoes Meiosis II
Ovum & Secondary PolarBody
What are the parts of the Innate Immune system's first line of defense?
1) Skin (epithelia) ~ physical barrier
2) Saliva and tears ~ they contain lysosomes which eat foriegn matter
3) Somach Acidity
What are the three ways of treating cancer?
1)Cut it out surgically
2)Kill it with radiation
3)Kill it with chemicals
What is the type of cancer which effects the blood cells?
Leukemia
What are the causes of Cancer?
Viruses; X-rays; UV radiation; Mutation
What is the Somatic Theory?
That immunity is develope in a part of your body.
What is the second line of defense in the innate immune system?
Endocytosis with the use of Phagocytes (more specifically Macrophages)
What secretes histamines?
Basophylls and Mast Cells
What are the two types of tumors and what do they mean?
Benign = noninvasive
Malignant = invasive/metastasis/moves
Define Pyrogenes
Part of the inflammitory response, they provide a fever response.
What is the definition of cancer?
When cells break the rules of production and growth
Define Endocrine glands
Ductless glands that secrete directly into the blood.
Where is the IgM found?
Antibodies and the blood stream
The ant. portion of the pituitary gland scretes two types of hormones. What are they?

Tropic Hormones which control other glands
Non Tropic Hormones which which act directly on the cells.
Where is IgA commonly found?
Protecing the epithelial structures
Define Exocrine glands
Ducted glands that go to the outside of the body
What are the components of Lymphocytes
There are B-cells and T-Cells
What provides the sperm with testosterone?
The Leydig Cells
How does the sperm break throught the egg?
It uses the acrosome at the tip of the sperm.
What is special about the pituitary gland?
It has two parts. Anterior and Posterior
Define Carcinoma
The cancer of the epithelia cells (ie skin cells; inner organs; and glands)
What is structure of the antibody comprised of?
It contains two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. Both have a variable part and a constant part.
The Adrenal Gland produces wha two properties?
Epinephrine which causes flight or fight reaction
Cortico Steroids.
What is the name of the cancer which effects the dense tissure fibers?
Sarcoma
What are the five hallmarks of Cancer?
T - Tissue invasion/metastasis
A - Avoidance of Apoptosis
I - Independance of Cell Regulation
L - Limitless replication potential
S - Sustained Angiogenesis
Define Leukemia
The Cancer of the blood
What were the examples given of non-tropic hormones?
Growth hormones
Enkephlans
Endorphines
Define a Spermatogonia
It is what the primortial germ cell matures into.
Define the Oviparity
Egglaying
Define Lymphoma
The caner which effects the lymphatic system
What are the two components of the adaptive/cell mediated immune response?
Lymphocytes and Antigens
What are the five classes of Immunogloblins?
IgM, IgE, IgG, IgA, IgD
Define Autocrine
A self activating duct.
Define Cytokines
Part of the inflammitory response, they send out beacons for phagocytes
How many copies of the mutated gene do you need to have a tumor in Tumor Suppresors, and why?
You need two because this is the loss of function of cell death.
Define palpatation
Touch
What are some strategies adopted by viruses.
Drift and shift = move and mutated
Latency = lay dormant until host has lowered immunity.
Tumors are said to be clonal. What does that mean?
The mass of cells all came from one single cell being replicated/ Cloned
Tumors are said to be heterogenous. What does that mean?
they are mutated in many ways
What is the name of the cancer which effects the lymphatic system?
Lymphoma
define an epitope
An epitope is the finger print of a cell upon which T-Cells inspect each cell.
What is the difference between MHCI and MHCII?
MHCI is found in all cells, uses the CD8 co-receptor, and flags down cytotoxins (T killer cells)
MHCII is found in B-cells and Macrophages, uses the CD4 co-receptor, and uses T helper cells which allows Antibodies to be made.
What is the third line of defense in the innate immune system
Inflammitory
1) Cytokines send out beacons for Phagocytes
2) Pyrogenes provide a fever response
3) Histomines Increasing blood flow and # of phagocytes
What component of a sperm provides the energy to swim?
The mitochondria at the base of the tail
Where is the IgE commonly found?
The GI tract and the airways.
When the Follicle burst what does it release?
The Secondary Oocyte
What is the pathway of spermatogenesis?
Primortial Germs Cell
matures to a SPERMATOGONIA
undergoes Mitosis
Primary Spermatocyte
undergoes Meiosis I
Secondary Spermatocyte
undergoes Meiosis II
Spermatids
What are the two genes that give rise to cancer?
Proto-oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors
Define Paracrine glands
A gland which effects neighbors
Define Negative Selection and what is it used for?
This selects everything that is not signaling. This is used to telling the immune system of what is yours and what isn'. The body kills all T and B cells which register when one is young.
What is the name of the cancer which effects the epithelia cells?
Carcinoma
What does the Antibodies do to fight invaders?
1) Neutralize the Toxins by finding the active site and breaking it
2) Opsonization - which is flaging down phagocytes.
What happens to the burst follicle?
It forms a Corpus Luteum which releases progesterone(Preventing the sheding of the endometrium).
Difine Ovoviviparity
All the nurishment comes from a closed egg like structure yet it is housed in the mother for added protection.
Where does the sperm mature?
The Semineferous tubules
How many copies of the mutated gene do you need to have a tumor in Protooncogenes, and why?
You only need one because it gains the function of limitless replication.
FSH and LH are examples of what type of hormone?
Tropic
What are the two sub sets of vivparity?
Marsupials and placentals
What is the Leydig cell responsible for?
It provides testosterone for the sperm.
What are the factors of making up the variable portion of an antibody?
Varible section, Diversity Section, the joining section, and then the constant part
What is the role of FSH and LH in the male reproductive system?
FSH stimulates Sertoli
LH stimulates Leydig
What is the definition of Contact inhibition?
When a normal cell comes into contact with another cell it stops growing.