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46 Cards in this Set

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What is negotiation of meaning?
Negotiation of meaning is a process that speakers go through to reach a clear understanding of each other.
Provide an example of negotiating meaning.
Asking for clarification, rephrasing, and confirming what you think you have understood are all strategies for the negotiation of meaning.
How do you negotiate meaning when your students do not speak the language?
Information gap activities such as jigsaw readings or listenings, group story building, spot the difference and communicative crosswords are examples of activities that give learners the opportunity to develop their communicative competence through negotiation of meaning as they share information.
*If the student doesn’t speak the language at all, then obviously visuals and acting/gesturing would be effective ways to negotiate meaning.
Explain some of the barriers that ESL students encounter in math/science that would impede their full participation in these areas? (a)
• ELLs need 5-10 years to develop academic language thoroughly enough to perform at the same level as native English speaking peers in science and math.
• An adequate diagnosis of ELL math and science ability requires that the teacher know their L1 language.
• ELLs have diverse backgrounds, and may have a broad range of prior schooling and experiences with math and science before arriving in the ESL classroom.
• New math and science knowledge and skills is best learned in L1. If the teacher doesn’t know it, the student may not learn as successfully.
• Although language development may be a goal of a particular math/science activity, error correction of language can hinder student participation. It’s better to focus on the content knowledge demonstrated by the student.
Explain some of the barriers that ESL students encounter in math/science that would impede their full participation in these areas? (b)
• Teachers and textbooks frequently present information in a way that is developmentally inappropriate for all children, and this problem is compounded for ELLs, who may be processing the info in L2 AND dealing with developmentally inappropriate input.
• Culturally diverse students approach learning in different ways
• Learners under various cultural and environmental conditions come to grips with knowledge about their worlds in different ways
• The way they perceive the environment, classify it, and think about it is influenced by culture
What is ethno-science/math?
• Ethnoscience refers to “theories and procedures for learning about the physical world that have evolved informally within cultures to explain and predict natural phenomena.”
• Ethnomathematics is defined as “Mathematical knowledge expressed in the language code of a given social group.” Includes mathematical ideas of people (sometimes oral) that have been ignored or otherwise distorted by conventional histories of math.
How can you incorporate ethno-science/math into a lesson?
• Using these approaches in math and science instruction is a way to affirm diversity and develop multicultural literacy. Also provide opportunities for interdisciplinary study because social science and literature can be integrated.
• Ways to integrate: Compare systems of measurement used by different cultures, study spider webs in science and discuss how American Indians have traditionally used spider webs as protection against bad medicine (see Ovando p. 255-257 for more examples).
Ovando’s three traditions when teaching social studies:
-Social studies taught as citizenship transmission (transmission approach)
-Social studies taught as social science
-Social studies taught as critical (or reflective) thinking a.k.a. transformative approach
Social studies taught as citizenship transmission (transmission approach)
- Nurturing a good citizen tends to mean transmitting predetermined knowledge and values
- Use of textbooks, lecturing, and a pattern of vertical pedagogical authority are used in this method
- This transmission curriculum tends to be the rise of democracy with a belief in “fairly continuous progress” and a focus on the political and economic systems
Social studies taught as social science
- Suggest that effective citizenship comes from an understanding of the various social sciences such as history, geography, political science, economics, sociology, anthropology, and psychology
- This approach is most commonly found in secondary schools
- Students learn to observe, analyze events and issues in ways similar to those of social scientists, for example doing historical research or engaging in simulated archeology dig
Social studies taught as critical (or reflective) thinking
- Also known as the transformative approach
- Citizenship preparation is based on the reasoning powers of the individual rather than on a particular set of values transmitted from the top down or a body of social science knowledge
- This approach stresses reasoning skills as a student interacts with teachers and with each other
- General characteristics of this approach:
“Connecting students’ experiences and the curriculum, providing opportunity for students to construct meaning themselves, allowing for the possibility that different students will take away different understandings from a lesson, questioning students’ taken for granted views of the world.”
What are the elements of a powerful social studies unit for ELLs? (1-5)
1. Identify high priority objectives
2. Assess students for prior knowledge
3. Provide academic language activities
4. Teach learning strategies, social skills, and thinking skills
5. Follow the five phases of CALLA
Elements of a powerful social studies unit for ELLs: Identify high priority objectives.
1. Identify high priority objectives from national and or state standards as well as the school districts history and social studies curriculum that are appropriate for students grade level
Elements of a powerful social studies unit for ELLs: Assess students for prior knowledge.
2. Asses students prior knowledge about the history\social studies topic
Elements of a powerful social studies unit for ELLs: Provide academic language activities.
3. Provide academic language activities integrated with instruction so that students listen to, discuss read and write about, and present history\social studies information.

-Reading and listening-historical narratives, geographical descriptions, newspaper articles about current or past events, biographies, letters, diaries, conduct web searches.
-Discussing and describing-current and past events, making individual and group presentations about historical or geographical topics; play games to learn and practice recall of history and information; roll play important events; debating political and economic issues; use data to think about future outcomes; investigate the impact on peoples lives of events in history
-Writing-taking notes, writing outlines, developing summates, writing opinions about events, researching and writing reports, keeping journals, writing persuasive texts
Elements of a powerful social studies unit for ELLs: Teach learning strategies, social skills, and thinking skills.
4. Teach the learning strategies, social skills, and critical thinking skills that help students understand and apply social studies information and processes.
a. Meta cognitive strategies
i. Student’s plan- What is my purpose of reading, listening to, speaking and or writing about history\social studies? How do I organize my report?
ii. Monitor\identify-Am I understanding? Does it make sense? Am I achieving my purpose? If not what do I need to do differently? Do I need help?
iii. Evaluate their learning-Did I understand the info? What is the big idea? Have I edited my writing correctly?
b. Task-based Strategies
. Make inferences
i. Make predictions
ii. Transfer\use cognates L1to L2
iii. Use images-graphs, artifacts, illustrations, maps
iv. Find\apply patterns
v. Classify sequence
vi. Take notes
vii. Use graphic organizers
viii. Summarize
Elements of a powerful social studies unit for ELLs: Follow the five phases of CALLA instruction.
5. Follow the five phases of CALLA instruction to provide rich and varied experiences with social studies
1. Preparation
2. Presentation
3. Practice
4. Self-evaluation
5. Expansion
Transmission vs. transformative social studies
Knowledge in the traditional transmission model is defined as a set of information waiting to be acquired. In transformative learning, knowledge does not exist as a given truth before the process of learning. Students develop knowledge as a result of their inquiry, action or experimentation.
Successful teaching involves much more than the transmission of content and skills. Our ultimate goal is to create independent, self-directed, self-motivated learners who are capable of critiquing and directing their own work; who are open to alternative viewpoints; and who have strongly developed higher order thinking skills.
What are the funds of knowledge? (Bullets)
• Research by Luis C. Moll.
• The concept of "funds of knowledge" is based on a simple premise: people are competent and have knowledge, and their life experiences have given them that knowledge.
• the knowledge students gain from their family and cultural backgrounds, to make their classrooms more inclusive
• “to refer to the historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills essential for household or individual functioning and well-being” (p. 133).
What are the funds of knowledge? (Paragraph)
When teachers shed their role of teacher and expert and, instead, take on a new role as learner, they can come to know their students and the families of their students in new and distinct ways. With this new knowledge, they can begin to see that the households of their students contain rich cultural and cognitive resources and that these resources can and should be used in their classroom in order to provide culturally responsive and meaningful lessons that tap students’ prior knowledge. Information that teachers learn about their students in this process is considered the student’s funds of knowledge. Culturally sensitive projects will engage students and help them learn.
How can the funds of knowledge be used to help design thematic instruction?
Example 1: Students’ parents in your classroom work in construction. Design a thematic lesson around construction and use families as resources for knowledge.
Example 2: Some of your students have Mayan background. Make a thematic unit on Mayan culture and have your students interview their family members to conduct research.
What is informal/authentic assessment?
An authentic assessment usually includes a task for students to perform and a rubric by which their performance on the task will be evaluated. Authentic assessment aims to evaluate students' abilities in 'real-world' contexts. In other words, students learn how to apply their skills to authentic tasks and projects. Authentic assessment does not encourage rote learning and passive test-taking. Instead, it focuses on students' analytical skills; ability to integrate what they learn; creativity; ability to work collaboratively; and written and oral expression skills. It values the learning process as much as the finished product.
Characteristics of informal/authentic assessment:
• Perform a task vs. selecting a response: ask students to demonstrate understanding by performing a more complex task usually representative of more meaningful application
• Real life: demonstrate proficiency by doing something that relates to real life and not a contrived test
• Construction/Application of Knowledge: Authentic assessments often ask students to analyze synthesize and apply what they have learned in a substantial manner, and students create new meaning in the process as well.
• Student Centered: If assessment is not chosen by the student then it is designed by the teacher with the student in mind
• Direct Evidence: Assessments offer more direct evidence of application and construction of knowledge. Can they correctly justify an answer?
Examples of informal/authentic assessment:
Some examples to use in your classroom might include using rubrics, portfolios, projects, role play, performances, make a video, write a song, make a powerpoint, etc.
How can informal/authentic assessments be used in different content areas?
• do science experiments
• conduct social-science research
• write stories and reports
• read and interpret literature
• solve math problems that have real-world application
Describe ESL in the Content Areas program:
The first instructional model, ESL in the Content Areas (Chamot & O'malley, 1986; 1987), was designed to provide English language development through context-embedded problem solving (Cummins, 1981) . This instructional model consists of (a) establishing native language literacy skills to build metalinguistic awareness based on prior knowledge, (b) explaining the concept to be learned in the content areas in Spanish with diminishing reliance on the mother tongue or among students with stronger Spanish metalinguistic awareness, and (c) graphic mapping and problem solving in science, mathematics, and reading in English and Spanish.
How would you know that a teacher is implementing ESL techniques and not just using English to deliver instruction?
The teacher would be teaching problem solving (i.e., the application of previously acquired knowledge to new, unfamiliar situations), and metacognition (i.e., the awareness of the processes one undergoes during learning) skills. This would include teaching how to verbalize thinking during problem solving, how to use imagery, and other cognitive heuristics. Throughout the lesson, the teacher would be using inquiry-based instruction and maintain a learner centered environment by using cooperative student grouping. Obviously, the teacher would also be providing appropriate scaffolding to allow students of all levels of language proficiencies to participate at higher levels of thinking.
Content Compatible Language:
 Expand students’ language learning beyond more academic forms and functions
 Provide an opportunity to sequence language instruction by reviewing previously introduced language and previewing language yet to come [introduce (I), repeat (Rep), refine (Ref), Master (M)]
 Provide “extra language” or “filler” to round out students’ language development
 Complement and supplement the content-obligatory language
 Are supportive of teacher-selected lesson activities and learning tasks
 May be derived from national, state, and local language standards (e.g., ACTFL, TESOL, etc.)
 Are inclusive of more communicative forms and functions
 Act as “language enhancements”; “above and beyond”
 Are “how-oriented,” not as much about the “what” of the content
Content Obligatory Language:
 Are necessary to learn the key content concepts for the lesson/unit
 Are primary – usually generated first
 Are more readily identifiable
 Are directly supportive of the “big idea” or “essential understanding” you are teaching
 Are essential to complete the lesson’s content objectives
 Act as the “Meat and potatoes” or “bare bones” language of the lesson
 Are required to learn for success with the assessment(s)
 May be derived from national, state, and local content standards
 Are content- or discipline-specific, more academic in nature
 Are “what-oriented”—the “what” being the content
How do you achieve comprehensible input when teaching ELLs? (In written form, orally?)
In written form it is important to have clear organization. This is where using predictable text, word walls, graphic organizer, building background knowledge and visual scaffolding come in very handy to making sure that students at all proficiency levels are able to understand what the teacher is presenting in written form.
In oral form, it is very important that the teacher uses gestures, visual scaffolding, manipulatives, proper pacing, and L1 support when necessary.
Problems that LEP students face in Social Studies:
• There is a general lack of time, materials and flexibility in schedules and curriculum

• Bilingual teachers and ESL teachers are not always well informed on the perspectives and information necessary to implement the curriculum in a meaningful and culturally sensitive way

• There is a general lack of previous knowledge in the student body, especially recent immigrants

• It is difficult to use use interactive strategies
Strategies for teaching Social Studies
• Make connections between the culture/background of the student and the curriculum and instruction

• Use interactive activities

• Use maps and other materials and manipulativas that can help students visualize and synthesize information

• Implement higher order questioning strategies, step away from exclusively using information recall (helps LEP students understand and connect with learning)

• Use DRTA strategy
• How to use DRTA strategy:
1. Think about what they already know about the concept
2. Make predictions about what they are going to learn/read about
3. Read the text, confirming or disproving their predictions
4. Talk about what they learned by creating and answering comprehension questions
Strategies for teaching social studies cont'd:
• Integrate social sciences in interdisciplinary units

• Visit museums and other field trips to bring subject matter alive

• Use music and art to teach the material

• Make sure not to teach from a monocultural point of view, present alternatives to the dominant perspective

• Allow students to compare and contrast different texts and perspectives to promote higher order thinking skills
What is the Collaborative scientific Approach?
In the Collaborative scientific approach, students actively construct scientific understandings through collaborative interdisciplinary
investigations of problems that the students themselves identify.
What are the major components of the Collaborative scientific Approach?
-Students use the scientific method to conduct research on questions they choose.
-Students conduct research collaboratively, not isolation.
-Views science as a tool for answering important questions vs. an inventory of "already-discovered-facts."
-Consistently relies on higher level thinking from the students.
Why is the collaborative scientific method considered a Vygotskyan method?
Because Cheche Konnen emphasized collaborative inquiry based on their belief, developed by Vygotsky, that robust knowledge and understandings are socially constructed through talk, activity and interaction around meaningful problems and tools. It is through interaction with other experts - that scientific knowledge is built, not in isolation from the community.
Would you be able to design a science lesson following the collaborative scientific approach?
This approach would be difficult to implement in our classrooms because it requires a high degree of student choice and flexibility that seem, at first brush, incompatible with our requirements to follow curriculums and planning calendars. However, if we guided students towards forming the correct questions for a particular unit, it would be possible to implement. The primary obstacles seem to be that the approach would require a large amount of planning and background knowledge on the teacher’s part.
What is alternative or non-traditional assessment?
Alternative assessment, or nontraditional assessment, has become an umbrella term for anything other than standardized, multiple choice questions. Examples include short answer response and extended response, observation, individual or group performance assessment, and portfolios.
Explain current interest manifested by educators in incorporating other types of testing (i.e. non-traditional)
Educational programs designed for students whose first language is not English, English language learners (ELLs), are typically based on objectives unique to the needs of the students. Evaluations of these programs and the students in them should include assessments that attend to individual needs and accomplishments. Measures often focus on language proficiency because of the need to place students appropriately. Language assessment is important; however, documenting student progress in content knowledge is equally important and may be neglected or measured solely with standardized tests. Standardized tests, which are often multiple choice, norm-referenced, machine-scorable instruments, cannot adequately reflect ELL academic content achievement. These instruments, when used as the sole indicators of ability and/or growth, generate faulty comparisons between ELLs and other students, create inaccurate guidelines for placement and identification for special services, and overlook possible achievement. While standardized measures are widely used to assess student progress, they can and should be complemented with other indicators that show how an ELL is learning.
Features of alternative assessment:
-Assessment is based on authentic tasks that demonstrate learners' ability to accomplish communication goals
-Instructor and learners focus on communication, not on right and wrong answers
-Learners help to set the criteria for successful completion of communication tasks
-Learners have opportunities to assess themselves and their peers
Two examples of alternative assessments include:
-Performance assessment, a popular type of alternative assessment, requires the examinee to perform some type of task, which is then judged against preestablished criteria. Potential types of performance assessment include essays, portfolios, interviews, observations, work samples and group projects.

-A portfolio, which could include evidence of performance assessments and standardized test scores, is a collection of student work that graphically shows a student's efforts, progress or achievement. Examples of indicators that might make up a portfolio include writing samples, awards, assessment results, a tape of an interview, a series of photographs, or a drawing.
Which components of culture most impact second language learners in the math and science classroom?
Culture as a whole shapes the way we perceive math and science as Chomsky stated in his theories that posited that the human brain may not have one "innate mathematical structure". However, language in particular seems to play a huge role in how ELLs perform in math and science classrooms. This is evidenced by how certain languages seem to imbue their speakers, such as Japanese, with an additional scaffold for doing mental calculations. Other components that impact ELLs are multiculturalism, assimilation, acculturation. Ethnomath/science try to take this into account.
Effects of being a language minority student on tracking and assessment results:
Language- minority students are usually those who are not achieving at higher levels or on par with their more affluent peers. Researchers have found that perhaps culture has nothing to do with low achievement but rather teacher actions. For example, educators usually place recelntly arrived language minority students in the lowest curriculum track, thus guaranteeing low achievement levels. For some time Hispanic students were also placed into “educable mentally retarded” classes based on IQ tests that did not take into account language proficiency or cultural bias. Lack of language proficiency does not equal lack of academic potential.
How is a students English proficiency assessed in Texas?
In order to know if a student is ready to exit a native language program to go into an all-English classroom the teacher would have to assess the students’ reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills. The District assesses students who may be eligible for exit with the TELPAS. Students must score in advanced or advanced high levels. The following are the levels and the descriptions.

• Beginning
– Little or no ability
• Intermediate
– Limited ability, simple language structures, high-frequency vocabulary, routine contexts
• Advanced
– Grade appropriate, with second language acquisition support
• Advanced High
– Grade appropriate, with minimal second language acquisition support
How does a student qualify to exit LEP status?
In HISD, the LPAC considers the students, 3 grade Spanish reading TAKS, their APRENDA reading, and their TELPAS results. For TELPAS, they must score at High or Advanced High on the Reading section (and writing, if APRENDA req is not satisfied).