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288 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Reciprocal Determinism
Social learning theorists.
An interactive triad of the person, his/her bx, and the environment regulate the individual's bx.
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls automatic or involuntary bodily functions of the smooth muscles and glands, including digestion, heart rate, and breathing. Primary function is to maintain HOMEOSTASIS. Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Spinal Cord Divisions
Thoracic = C1-C7

Lumber = T1-T12

Sacral = S1
Severing between C1 and C5

(all 4 limbs)
Severing at C6 or C7

(paralysis in the legs and partial paralysis of the arms)

Severing at T1 or lower

(paralysis in the legs)
Gerstmann's Syndrome
Lesions of the dominant parietal lobe and results in agraphia, acalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia.
Major sensory relay center.
Receives input from all senses except olfaction.
Critical in the perception of pain.
Abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia.
Limbic System
Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala, Septum, parts of the Thalamus, and parts of the Frontal and Temporal Lobes.
Involved with emotional bx, particularly aggression.
Stimulating increases aggression.
Removal resulst in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias.
Moderating effect on aggression.
Damage can result in rage.
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Damage or removal of the amygdala that results in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias.
Classical Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine, the Catecholamines, Serotonin, and the Amino Acids.
Most common NT.
Voluntary movement and memory and cognition.
Prevalent in hippocampus.
Deficiency involved in Alzheimer's.
Dopamine and Norepinephrine.
Synthesized from dietary tyrosine and phenylalanine.
Involved in mood, pain perception, and sleep.
Catecholamine Hypothesis of Affective Disorders
Depression is associated with a relative deficiency of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, while mania is associated with a relative excess of catecholamines.
Permissive Hypothesis of Serotonin Functioning
A deficiency in serotonin permits the expression of affective disorders, but it is not sufficient in and of itself. Both mania and depression are characterized by low levels of serotonin, but differ in terms of high versus low norepinephrine.
Addison's Disease
Undersecretion of corticosteroids, or adrenal insufficiency, with sx of apathy, weakness, irritability, depression, and GI disturbance.
Cushing's Disease
Oversecretion of corticosteroids (adrenal cortex) with sx of agitated depression, irritability and emotional lability, difficulties with memory and concentration, and even suicide. Adiposity (swelling and fattening) of the face, neck, and trunk.
Inability to carry out purposeful motor movements. Left-brain lesion.
Impairment in memory plus at least one of the following four conditions:
disturbance in executive functioning
Postconcussion Syndrome
headache, dizziness, fatigue, diminished concentration, memory deficit, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, hypochondriacal concern, hypersensitivity to noise, and photophobia.
Acute onset and fluctuating course, clouded sensorium, and most likely reversable.
Sleep Stages
1 = little alpha, predominance of theta
2 = spindles (greatest amount of time)
3 and 4 = delta (hard to awaken)
REM = EEG patterns of stage 1 with rapid eye movement
Generalized Seizures
Tonic Clonic (Grand Mal)
Petit Mal (absence)
Partial Seizures
Simple Partial (focal are of brain only)

Jacksonian (initially localized w/ spread to adjacent areas)

Complex Partial (aura, purposeless bx, lip smacking, unintelligible speech)
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Hans Selye
Response to severe stress.
Thorzine (traditional antipsychotic)
Fluphenazine (traditional antipsychotic)
Trifluoperazine (traditional antipsychotic)
haloperidol (traditional antipsychotic)
thiothixene (traditional antipsychotic)
thioridazine (traditional antipsychotic)
clozapine (novel antipsychotic)
risperidone (novel antipsychotic)
olanzapine (novel antipsychotic)
quetiapine (novel antipsychotic)
Extrapyramidal Sx (EPS)
Movement-related sx which are the most potentially damaging side effects of antipsychotics.
Dystonia (muscle spasms of neck, back, tongue, eyes or larynx)
Parkinsonism (mask like face, shuffle)
Treated with anticholinergic agents (Cogentin, Artane)
**Risperdal and Zyprexa do not cause.
amitryptyline (TCA)
clomipramine (TCA)
imipramine (TCA)
fluoxetine (SSRI)
sertraline (SSRI)
paroxetine (SSRI)
phenelzine (MAOI)
tranylcypromine (MAOI)
bupropion (other)
alprazolam (anxiolytic)
clonazepam (anxiolytic)
diazepam (anxiolytic)
lorazepam (anxiolytic)
temazepam (sed/hyp)
triazolam (sed/hyp)
zolpidem (sed/hyp)
carbamazapine (anticonvulsant)
gabapentin (anticonvulsant)
divalproex (anticonvulsant)
dextroamphetamine (stimulant)
methylphenidate (stimulant)
Malpractice Lawsuit
Dereliction of Duty Directly causing Damages
Preamble of Ethics Code
Goals are "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with who psychologists work," as well as "the education of members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline."
Somewhat familiar with treating a particular disorder but not an expert in that area or concerns about remaining objective.
Applying a newly learned technique or beginning work with a specialized population.
Unfamiliar with a certain area of knowledge.
Referring Out
therapist's personal beliefs interfer with the therapy, client feels uncomfortable with therapist, or therapist lacks competence in treating the presenting problem.
Statements by Others
Psychologists retain responsibility for public statements even when they hire someone to promote them or their practice. Must prevent others from making deceptive statements and correct them when possible. Prohibited to compensate a media employee for publicity. When paid ads are used, must be identified.
In Person Solicitation
Prohibited when people are vulnerable to undue influence.
Payments and Fee-Splitting
Must be based on services provided. May never pay another professional for a referral.
Student Disclosure of Information
Prohibited unless it is necessary to help students who are having personal problems that interfere with clinical work or pose a risk of harm.
Professional Psychologists
Doctoral degree in psychology from an organized, sequential program in a regionally accredited university or professional school.
Full Record = 3 years after tx complete
Full Record or Summary = 12 years

Dispose of no earlier than 15 years after tx complete.
Buckley Amendment

Protects the privacy of student records in higher education institutions.
Right of Accounting
Patients have the right to recieve an accounting of all the disclosures of their PHI for the past 6 years.
Griggs Versus Duke Power Company
I/O Case affected the issue of testing in the workplace. Tests that measured broad abilities, in which minorities passed at lower rates, were unfair to use to make decisions of hiring and promotion. **Tests must measure skills necessary for a particular job.
Adverse Impact
4/5ths Rule

Percentage of minorities selected must be at least 4/5ths of the percentage of nonminorities selected.

(selection rate of nonminorities x .8)
Minorities and nonminorities score differently on the predictor test yet perform similarly on the criterion. (2 parallel lines)
Differential Validity
Significantly different criterion-related validity coefficients for different ethnic groups on the same test. More valid for predicting performance of one group than another.

**Actually rarely occurs. Result of low sample size.
Critical Incident Technique
Method of obtaining data for a job analysis. Involves ascertaining the specific actions that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job.
Multiple Regression Approach
Selection Procedure
Compensatory Technique
Low scores on one predictor can be compensated for by high scores on another predictor.
Multiple Cutoff
Selection Procedure
Noncompensatory Technique
Only applicants who meet or exceed the cutoff on each of the predictors will be considered.
Multiple Hurdle
Selection Procedure
Noncompensatory Technique
The predictors are applied in a particular order, and an applicant must pass the cutoff score on the first predictor in order to continue on in the selection process.

**Efficient and Cost Effective
BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales)
Evaluation method where behavioral anchors are based on critical incidents.

Problem = Scale development is expensive and time consuming, scales do not tend to measure actual day to day activities, but rather hypothetical situations.
Training and Individual Differences
Overall, training does not always equalize differences in ability; it may actually magnify them.
Holland's Personality-Job Fit Theory
Individuals and job traits can be matched and close matches will correlate with job success and satisfaction. (RIASEC)

Degree of match between the personality type and the work environment.

High = Longevity at the job

How closely related an individual's first two code letters are on the hexagon.

Higher = stability in work hx

Distinctness of a profile.
(the more an individual is represented by one personality type, the more distinct)
Environmental Identity

Individual's view that the work environment has a clear and stable system of goals and rewards.
Vocational Identity

Clarity and stability of an individual's own goals and interests.

High = Make decisions more easily and with greater confidence
Super's Life/Career Rainbow
Career decision making involves a range of changes and decisions from career entry to retirement (developmental).
Growth (to 14)
Exploratory (15-24)
Establishment (25-44)
Maintenance (45-64)
Decline/Disengagement (65+)
**Career patterns are determined by SES, abilities, personal characteristics, and opportunities.
**life roles
**Express self-concept through vocation
Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory
Career development is based on social learning, environmental conditions and events, genetic influences, and learning experiences.

**Choose career based on what you have learned through modeling and reinforcement.
Tiedeman and O'Hara's Theory of Career Development
Differentiation = distinctions about different aspects of oneself and environment.

Integration = unifying different aspects which results in better decision making, more refined goals, and more useful plans.
Schein's Career Anchor Theory
Person's self-concept acts as an anchor, or stabilizing force, determining what future occupational decisions will be made.
Cognitive Resource Theory
Looks at whether directive vs. nondirective leadership style will be more effective depending on the cognitive resources of the employees as well as stress levels, experience of leader, and group support for leader.
Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model
Decision Making
Extent to which leaders allow their subordinates to participate in making decisions.
House's Path-Goal Theory
Recommends that the leader increase personal payoffs for subordinates and make the paths to the payoffs easier by clarifying and reducing roadblocks.
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership
Employees' Readiness to Perform
If not ready, tell them what to do.
If more ready, need less task orientation.
(Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating)
Most Important Reason for Complying with a Manager's Request
Presence of the combination of expert and referent power (incremental power).
Rational-Economic Model
(classical approach)
Involves basing decisions on a clear definition of the problem, knowing all possible alternatives and consequences of choices, and then choosing the optimum solution.
Administrative Approach
(behavioral) (satisficing style)
Herbert Simon
Used when problems are ambiguous, only partial knowledge is available, and the first satisfactory alternative is chosen.
Job Enrichment
Giving employees a greater role in planning and performing their work (opportunity for satisfiers)
"Vertical Loading"
=increased satisfaction and performance, decreased turnover, and decreased absenteeism
Job Enlargement
Expands the variety of tasks the employee performs without increasing responsibility or autonomy.
"Horizontal Loading"
=Increased satisfaction and only slightly affects job performance
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Divides needs into those based on existence, relatedness, and growth. All needs may influence at the same time. If person is frustrated, will move towards a previously met need. Satisfying a need may make the need even stronger.
McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory
TAT to measure needs.
nACH - need for achievement
nAFF - need for affiliation
nPOWER - need for power
*Needs are acquired over time.
**People can be trained to think more like high nACH people.
General Expectancy Theory/Vroom's Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE)Theory
People behave in ways that are based on their perceived expectancy that certain rewards will follow.
Expectancy = success on the task
Instrumentality = rewards
Valence = value of rewards to person
Adam's Equity Theory
Ratio of self-inputs/self outcomes vs. others' inputs/outcomes. Based on Social Comparison Theory.
Locke's Goal Setting Approach
1 - goals should be specific
2 - goals should be of intermediate to high level of difficulty
3 - workers must receive feedback
4 - a sense of self-efficacy will increase performance
5 - employees must accept the goals**
Organizational Development
Focuses on total organizational change and on systematic ways to bring about planned change.
Stages of Group Development
Ideal Group Size for Decision Making
5 or 7
Implosive Therapy
Conducted in imagination only. After the pt. is exposed to the feared object in imagination, the therapist interprets possible psychosexual themes.
Self-Control Procedures
Self-Monitoring (detailed record of what one does)
Stimulus Control (narrowing the range of stimuli that elicit a particular bx)
Type of punishment that involves restitution or reparation, as well as physical guidance.
Insight studies with chimps.
Latent Learning
Ellis - Rational Emotive Therapy
Approaches problems in a direct and straight forward way by convincing pts of their irrationality.
Irrational Beliefs
ABC Model (Activating event, Belief, Consequence)
Direct Instruction, Persuasion, and Logical Disputation
Active and Confrontative
Beck - Cognitive Therapy
Empirical hypothesis testing as a means of changing existing beliefs.
Socratic Questioning (collaborative)
Psych sx result from maladaptive thoughts (automatic and very often occur outside of cs awareness)
Logical Errors, Faulty Conceptions, Self Signals
*Depression results from a maladaptive cognitive triad.
**Goal = identify and test negative cognitions, to develop more flexible schemas, and to rehearse new cog and bx responses.
Meichenbaum - Cognitive Bx Modification
Self-Instruction Therapy
Stress Inoculation Training

**focus on "self-statements"
Socratic Style
Self-Instruction Therapy
Combines modeling and graduated practice with ret to help pts that have problems with taks completion.
1. Therapist Modeling 2. Therapist Verbalization 3. Pt Verbalization
4. Pt Silently Talks Through the Task
5. Independent Task Performance
Stress Inoculation Training
Bolstering of pt.'s repertoire of coping responses to milder stressors can decrease susceptibility to more severe stress.
Rehm - Self Control Model of Depression
Depression is a result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement, and high rates of self-punishment.
Ego Psychology
Focus on the ego's capacity for integration and adaptation.
A. Freud
Object Relations Theory
Deals with capacity to have mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships.
Focus on the impact of social and cultural factors in determining personality.
Interpersonal Theory
Personality exists only in an emotional exchange between people.
Prototaxic (0-7 mos)-serial sensation
Parataxic (8-11 mos)-sequential sensation
Syntaxic (12 mos-2 yrs)-causal sensation
Karen Horney
Neurosis develops from feelings of alienation, basic anxiety, and basic hostility that result from the child's discovery of helplessness in the face of all-powerful, indifferent adults.
Moving Toward, Moving Against, Moving Away
Erich Fromm
Marx and Existentialist philosophers
Man's bx results from sociocultural and economic conditions.
Having Mode and Being Mode
Adler - Individual Psychology
Striving for superiority and personal competence. Motivated by social (aggressive) drives. Feelings of inferiority that motivate mastery or contribute to neurosis.
Teleological View of Bx
Systematic Training in Effective Parenting (STEP)
Democratic approach to parenting that values and respects the child's contribution. Use natural and logical consequences of bx as the basis of discipline.
(Adler/Dreikers) Child's Misbx Results From 4 Mistaken Goals
1. Attention
2. Control/Power
3. Revenge
4. Desire to be left alone
Rogers - Client Centered Therapy
Pathology is due to incongruence between the self and experience.
Phenomenal Self
Focus=Clarifying feelings without judging or elaborating upon them.
Empathy, Warmth, Genuineness
Perls - Gestalt Therapy
People structure experiences as whole, integrated organisms, not in cognitive or affective fragments. (figure and ground)
Focus=Becoming aware of whole personality by discovering those aspects of self that are blocked from awareness. INTEGRATION
Glasser - Reality Therapy
Focuses on clarifying pt values and helping pt to evaluate current bx and plans in relation to these values.
Key Element=Control Theory
(juvenile delinquents and prison inmates)
Berne - Transactional Analysis
Goal is for pt to become aware of the intent behind their communication and to eliminate deceit so that pt can interpret their own bx accuately.
Ego States, Transactions, Games, Strokes, Life Scripts
Thermal Biofeedback vs. EMG Biofeedback
EMG is more effective for tension headaches as compared to thermal for migraines.
Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Bx Change
**Motivational Interviewing is an enhancement of this
5 Factor Theory of Personality
Costa and McCrae
Openness to experience
General Systems Theory
Circular nature of feedback loops.
Negative Feedback Loop-decrease deviation
Positive Feedback Loop-increase deviation
Psychodynamic Family Therapy
Facilitation of individual maturation in the context of the family system.
Marital Schism
Marital Skew
Object Relations Family Therapy
Focuses on transferences and projections between couples of family members.
Structural Family Therapy
Family is viewed as a single, interrelated system, which is assessed according to hierarchy of power, clarity and firmness of boundaries, and significant alliances and splits.
Rigid Triads: Triangulation, Detouring, Stable Coalition
Tx=Taking Sides, Blaming, Forming Coalitions
Communications Family Therapy - MRI
Satir, Watzlawick, Bateson, Jackson, Haley
Double Bind
Addresses communication problems using indirect (paradoxical intervention) and direct (teaching and pointing out) techniques.
Strategic Family Therapy
Views family's presenting problem and sx as a communicative act.
Tx=resolving presenting problem only (defined by bx objectives and techniques)
Focus=interrupting rigid feedback cycle and defining a clearer heirarchy (paradoxical interventions)
Milan Group - Systematic Family Therapy
Circular questioning and prescription of rituals
Family Systems Theory
Goal=personal differentiation from the family-of-origin, the ability to be one's true self in the face of familial or other pressures that threaten loss of love or social position.
Emotional Triangle=closeness of 2 members excludes a third.
Solution Focused Therapy
Steve de Shazer
Very brief
Miracle Question
Exception Question
Scaling Question
Narrative Therapy
Michael White
Sx do not serve functions, but rather they oppress people.
Goal=help pt "re-story" by casting difficulties as a struggle for control with a sx.
Behavioral Family Therapy
Normal family functioning results when adaptive bx is rewarded, maladaptive bx is not reinforced, and the benefits of being a member of the family outweigh the costs.
**In troubled families, maladaptive bx is reinforced by family attention.
Tx=concrete, oberservable behavioral goals.
Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy
Relationship related cognitions are seen as the underlying cause of feelings and bx of family members.
Ideal Group Composition
Heterogeneous in terms of conflict
Homogeneous in terms of ego strength
7 or 8 members
range of 5 to 10
Eysenck Meta-Analysis
2/3 of all neurotics improved over a 2 year period whether or not they received tx.
Also noted that treated people seemed to do worse than non-treated people.
Average Effect Size of Tx
Improvement by 8th Session
50% of patients are measurably improved
Improvement by End of Six Months
75% of patients were measurably improved.
Seligman Effectiveness Study
90% of treated pts doing well
long-term tx yielded better outcomes
True Experimental Research
At least 1 IV is manipulated
Subjects randomly assigned
Quasi-Experimental Research
At lease 1 IV is manipulated
Non-random assignment (pre-existing groups)
Observational, Passive, or Non-experimental Research
No intervention or manipulation
Sometimes called "correlational"
Between Groups Design
Independent Data
Within Subjects Design
Correlated Dat
-repeated measures
-inherent relationship
Used to deal with carryover effects inherent in repeated measures.
Latin Square
Mixed Design
Both independent and correlated groups.
Single Subject Design
AB, ABAB, Multiple Baseline, Simultaneous Tx, and Changing Criterion
Group Subject Design
AB Design
A baseline condition is followed by a tx condition.
ABAB Design
Baseline and tx conditions are alternationed: tx, baseline, tx, baseline
**Protects against treat of history
**Problems=failure of IV to return to baseline, ethics regarding removal of effective tx
Multiple Baseline Design
Tx is applied SEQUENTIALLY or CONSECUTIVELY across subjects, situations, or bx.
Resolves problems associated with AB and ABAB designs, but is more time consuming and $$.
Changing Criterion Design
Attempt to change bx in increments to match a changing criterion.
10 cups one day, then 8 the next, and then 6 the third day.
Time Sampling
Behavioral Measurement
Useful for bx that is not discrete, thus has no beginning or end.
Whole Interval
Momentary Time Sampling
Observer records whether target bx is present or absent at the moment the time interval ends.
Whole-Interval Sampling
Scoring target bx positively only if it is exhibited for the full duration of the time interval.
Event Recording
Tallying the number of times the target bx occurred.
Useful for a target bx that is discrete and occurs infrequently.
Simple Random Sampling
Every member of the population has an equal chance of being randomly selected.
Stratified Random Sampling
Population divided into strata and then a random sample of equal size of each strata is selected.
(ex. divide into various SES levels and then select equal numbers from each SES)
Proportional Sampling
Subjects randomaly selected in proportion to their representation in the general population.
Systematic Sampling
Selecting every kth element after a random start. (ex. every 10th person is selected)
Cluster Sampling
Identifying naturally occurring groups of subjects and randomly selecting certain clusters. (schools in school district - randomly select 10 schools)
Threats to Internal Validity
Factors other than the IV that may have caused the change in the DV.
History (Control Group)
Maturation (Control Group)
Testing Practice (Solomon Four Group Design)
Instrumentation (Control Group)
Statistical Regression (Control Group)
Selection Bias (Random Assignment)
Diffusion (tighter control of experiment)
Solomon Four Group Design
Helps control for effects of testing practice.
Divide subjects into 4 groups.
One=pre and post test, intervention in between
Two=pre and post test, but no intervention
Three=intervention and post
Four=pre and intervention
Threats to Construct Validity
Refers to factors other than the desired specifics of intervention that result in differences.
Attention and Contact w/ Subjects
Experimenter Expectancies (Rosenthal Effect) (Blind Experimenter)
Demand Characteristics (Blind Subjects)
John Henry Effects (groups should not know about each other)
Threats to External Validity
Whether results can be generalized from sample studied to the population.
Sample Characteristics
Stimulus Characteristics
Contextual Characteristics (Reactivity - Hawthorne Effect)
When subjects behave in a particular way just because they are participating in research and being observed (Hawthorne Effect).
Threat to External Validity
Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity
Low Power
Unreliability of Measures
Variability in Procedures
Subject Heterogeneity
Low Power
Diminished ability to find significant results.
Small Sample Size
Inadequate Interventions
The Greater the Internal Validity
The Lower the External Validity
Best Measure of Central Tendency
**Median when data is skewed or extreme scores are present
standard deviation squared
Positive Skew
Higher proportion of scores in lower range of values (peak near y axis)

Mode, Median, Mean
Negative Skew
Higher proportion of scores in the higher range of values.
Peak far from the y axis.

Mean, Median, Mode
Very sharp peak
flattened distribution
Percentage Correct
Criterion-referenced Score
Domain-referenced Score
Percentile Rank
How person scored relative to group.
Norm-referenced Score
Standard Scores
Based on SD of sample.
IQ scores
SAT scores
EPPP scores
**Z-scores are most basic and correspond directly to SD (mean=0, SD=1) Always identical to raw score distribution.
Percentile Ranks

**If points are added to 2 people in distribution, there will be a greater change in rank for person at mid-range as opposed to tail.
Z-score formula
Raw Score Formula
X=mean + or - Z(SD)
Standard Error of the Mean
Average amount of deviation of a sample mean.


Varies directly with SDpop
Varies indirectly with N
Region of Unlikely Values
Rejection Region
At tail end of curve
Unlikely that a researcher will obtain means in this region simply because of chance.
Corresponds to alpha level (when .05, rejection region is 5% of curve).
**When obtained values fall in rejection region, null is rejected, and tx had an effect.
Type I Error
Null is incorrectly rejected, i.e., differences were found and they do not exist.

**Size of alpha directly corresponds to the likelihood of making this error.
Type II Error
The null is incorrectly accepted, i.e., no differences are found when differences actually do exist.

**Probability of making this error corresponds to beta (inverse relationship w/ alpha).
When null is rejected and it turns out to be correct.
Ability to correctly reject the null.
Increased when sample size is large, random error is small, magnitude of intervention is large, statistical test is parametric, and test is one-tailed.
**Power=1-beta. Beta has the most significant and measurable effect on power. As alpha increases, so does power.
Assumptions for Parametric Tests
Interval or ration data
Homoscedasticity (similar variability)
Normally distributed data
Violations of Homoscedasticity
Okay as long as an equal number of subjects is used in each cell.
Chi Square
Test of Difference
One IV
2 or more groups
Multiple Sample Chi Square
Test of Difference
>one IV
2 or more groups (per IV)
Independent groups
Test of Difference
one or more IV
2 or more groups (per IV)
Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
1 group
ordinal data
t test single sample
Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
1 group
I/R data
t test independent samples
Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
I/R data
Mann Whitney, Median Test, or Kolmogorov-Smirnov
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
Ordinal data
Wilcoxon or Sign Test
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
Ordinal data
t test matched samples
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
I/R data
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
I/R data
Kruskall Wallis
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
Ordinal data
1 Way Repeated Measures ANOVA
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
I/R data
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
Ordinal data
2 Way ANOVA or Factorial ANOVA
2 IV's
2 groups or more per IV
both IV's - groups independent
I/R data
Mixed ANOVA or Split Plot ANOVA
2 IV's
2 groups or more per IV
1 IV - groups independent
1 IV - groups correlational
I/R data
Repeated Measures Factorial ANOVA
2 IVs
2 groups or more per IV
both IVs-groups correlational
I/R data
Randomized Block ANOVA
2 IVs
2 or more groups per IV
both IVs-groups independent
one blocked
I/R data
***study the effect of a confounding variable
2 IVs
2 groups or more per IV
with Covariate
independent and/or correlational groups
I/R data
***paritaling out or getting rid of confounding variable
>1 DV
2 groups or more per IV
independent and/or correlational groups
I/R data
Single Sample Chi-Square Degrees of Freedom
df=#groups - 1
Multiple Sample Chi-Square Degrees of Freedom
t test single sample degrees of freedom
t test for matched or correlated samples degrees of freedom
df=# pairs-1
degrees of freedom for t test independent samples
degrees of freedom for one way ANOVA
df total=N-1
df between groups=#groups-1
df within groups=df total-df between groups
Expected Frequencies in a Chi-Square
Data in Each Cell:
Sum of the row x Sum of the Column/N

N and Groups are given:
Freq=N/total # of cells
F Ratio for One Way ANOVA

**When F=1, no significance.
***When F>2, significance.
Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type I
Scheffe and Tukey
Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type II Error (least protection from Type I)
Fisher's LSD
Advantage of 2 Way ANOVA
Not only permits analysis of main effects (significance) for each IV, but also permits analysis of interaction effects.

**When an interaction is significant, main effects must be interpreted with caution. (Interaction must be interpreted first)
Trend Analysis
Extension of the ANOVA.
Used to analyze non-linear data such as, doage of drugs, hours of food deprivation, etc.
Coefficient of Determination
=correlation coefficient squared

Represents the amount of variability in Y that is shared with, explained by, or accounted for by X.
Simple Linear Regression Equation
Derived based on the line of best fit through the scatter plot and is calculated using the least squares criterion.
Regression Equation:
Used to calculate the correlation between X and Y when it is thought that X and Y have a curvilinear relationship.
Pearson r
X and Y=I/R data
Spearman's Rho or Kendall's Tau
X and Y=ordinal data
X=I/R data
Y=true dichotomy
X=I/R data
Y=artificial dichotomy
X and Y=true dichotomies
X and Y=artificial dichotomies
Partial Correlation
Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the effect of a third variable removed.
Part (Semipartial)Correlation
Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the influence of a third variable removed from only one of the original variable.s
Moderator Variable
Variable that influences the strength of the relationship between the predictor and the criterion.
Mediator Variable
Explaines why there is a relationship between the predictor and the criterion.
Multiple R
2 or more IVs (at least 1 I/R data)
1 DV (I/R data)
Optimize Ability to Predict
Low correlation between predictors (X) and a moderate to high correlation between each predictor and the criterion (Y).
Problem that occurs in a multiple regression when the predictors are highly correlated with one another (redundant).
Stepwise Regression
Computer generated, implemented backward or forward.
Allows researcher to come up with fewest possible predictors.
Hierarchical Regression
Researcher controls analysis, adding variables to analysis in order that is most consistent with the theory being proposed.
Canonical R
Extension of multiple R.
Correlation between 2 or more IVs and 2 or more DVs.
Discriminant Function Analysis
Multiple Regression
2 or more IVs (X) and 1 criterion (Y).
Used when the criterion (Y) is nominal (categorical) rather than I/R data.

**Predict membership in a group.
Loglinear Analysis
Logit Analysis
Used to predict categorical criterion (Y) based on categorical predictors (X).
Path Analysis
Apply correlational techniques to causal modeling.
Applies multiple regression techniques to testing a model that specifies causal links among variables.

**researcher already has causal model
Structural Equation Modeling
Enables researchers to make inferences about causation. Used to test out many different causal pathways.
Factor Analysis
Test of Structure
Extracts as many significant factors from the data as is possible.
Eigenvalue=strength of factor (>1)
Orthogonal Rotation
Oblique Rotation
Orthogonal Rotation
(Factor Analysis)
Axes remain perpendicular. Always results in factors that have no correlation with one another. Easier to interpret.
Communalities can be interpreted.
(Orthogonal Rotation)
How much of a test's variability is explained by the combination of all the factors.
Factor loadings are squared and added together.
Oblique Rotations
(Factor Analysis)
Angle between the axes is non-perpendicular and the factors are correlated.
**Some prefer as factors do tend to be correlated in the real world.
Principle Components Analysis
Used when one is trying to extract factors and there is no empirical or theoretical guidance on the values of the communalities. (A few uncorrelated factors - components)
Key Issue=factors are empirically derived and the researcher has no prior hypotheses.
(Principle) Factor Analysis
Communality values need to be ascertained before the analysis.
Cluster Analysis
Test of Structure
Involves gathering data on a variety of dependent variables and statistically looking for naturally occurring subgroups in the data.
Performed without any a priori hypotheses.
Minimum Acceptable Reliability
Coefficient of Stability
Test Retest Reliability
Administer the identical test at 2 points in time.
Error=time sampling
Coefficient of Equivalence
Parallel Forms Reliability
Administer 2 roughly equivalent but not identical forms of the same test at 2 points in time.
Practice effects are minimized.
Error=time and content sampling
Internal Consistency Reliability
Consistency of scores within the test.
Split Half and Kuder Richardson or Chronbach's Alpha
Split Half Reliability
Calculated by splitting the test in half and then correlating the scores obtained on each half by each person.

**Spearman Brown Prophecy Formula is used to compensate for reducing number of questions by half
Error=item or content sampling
***Inappropriate for speeded tests
Kuder Richardson (KR-20 and KR-21) and Chronbach's Alpha
More sophisticated.
Analysis of correlation of each item with ever other item in the test (every possible split half)
KR-20=dichotomous and vary in difficulty level
KR-21=dichotomous and equal difficulty
Interrater Reliability
Pearson r, Kappa Statistic, Yule's Y
Standard Error of Measurement

Range=0 to SD
Confidence Intervals
Used to report a person's score.
Standard Error of Measurement
Actual Score
Content Validity
How adequately a test samples a particular content area.
Quantified by asking a panel of experts if each item is essential, etc.
Criterion Related Validity
How adequately a test score can be used to infer, predict, or estimate criterion outcome. (rxy)

Concurrent Validity
Criterion Related Validity
Predictor and criterion are measured and correlated at about the same time.
Predictive Validity
Criterion Related Validity
There is a delay between the measurement of the predictor and the criterion.
Standard Error of Estimate

Range=0 to SDy
Taylor Russell Tables
Numerically describe the amount of improvement that occurs in selection when a predictor test is introduced.
Base Rate=rate of successful employees
Selection Ratio=proportion of available openings to applicants (low is many applicants)
Incremental Validity=amount of improvement in success rate that results from using predictor test
**Optimized when base rate is moderate (.5) and selection ratio is low (.1)
Item Response Theory
Used to calculate to what extent a specific item on a test correlates with an underlying construct.
Performance on a test item respresents the degree to which subject has a latent trait.
Used to develop individually tailored adaptive tests where an answer to one question determines whether another question will be asked. (few number of questions)
Cross validation always results in shrinkage of the criterion related validity coefficient.
Relationship between Reliability and Validity
Reliability sets a ceiling on validity.
Correction for Attenuation Formula
Calculates how much higher validity would be if the predictor and criterion were both perfectly reliable.
Construct Validity
How adequately a new test measures a construct or trait. (hypothetical concept that cannot be measured directly)
Factor Analysis
Multi-trait, multi-method matrix
Convergent Validity
Part of Construct Validity
Correlation of scores on new test with other available measures of same trait.
Divergent Validity
Part of Construct Validity
Discriminant Validity
Correlation of scores on the new test with scores on another test that measures a different trait or construct.