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288 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Reciprocal Determinism

Social learning theorists.
An interactive triad of the person, his/her bx, and the environment regulate the individual's bx. 

Autonomic Nervous System

Controls automatic or involuntary bodily functions of the smooth muscles and glands, including digestion, heart rate, and breathing. Primary function is to maintain HOMEOSTASIS. Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.


Spinal Cord Divisions

Thoracic = C1C7
Lumber = T1T12 Sacral = S1 

Quadriplegia

Severing between C1 and C5
(all 4 limbs) 

Paraplegia

Severing at C6 or C7
(paralysis in the legs and partial paralysis of the arms) Severing at T1 or lower (paralysis in the legs) 

Gerstmann's Syndrome

Lesions of the dominant parietal lobe and results in agraphia, acalculia, rightleft disorientation, and finger agnosia.


Thalamus

Major sensory relay center.
Receives input from all senses except olfaction. Critical in the perception of pain. Abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia. 

Limbic System

Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala, Septum, parts of the Thalamus, and parts of the Frontal and Temporal Lobes.
Involved with emotional bx, particularly aggression. 

Amygdala

Stimulating increases aggression.
Removal resulst in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias. 

Septum

Moderating effect on aggression.
Damage can result in rage. 

KluverBucy Syndrome

Damage or removal of the amygdala that results in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias.


Classical Neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine, the Catecholamines, Serotonin, and the Amino Acids.


Acetylcholine

Most common NT.
Voluntary movement and memory and cognition. Prevalent in hippocampus. Deficiency involved in Alzheimer's. 

Catecholamines

Dopamine and Norepinephrine.
Synthesized from dietary tyrosine and phenylalanine. 

Norephinephrine

Noradrenaline
Involved in mood, pain perception, and sleep. 

Catecholamine Hypothesis of Affective Disorders

Depression is associated with a relative deficiency of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, while mania is associated with a relative excess of catecholamines.


Permissive Hypothesis of Serotonin Functioning

A deficiency in serotonin permits the expression of affective disorders, but it is not sufficient in and of itself. Both mania and depression are characterized by low levels of serotonin, but differ in terms of high versus low norepinephrine.


Addison's Disease

Undersecretion of corticosteroids, or adrenal insufficiency, with sx of apathy, weakness, irritability, depression, and GI disturbance.


Cushing's Disease

Oversecretion of corticosteroids (adrenal cortex) with sx of agitated depression, irritability and emotional lability, difficulties with memory and concentration, and even suicide. Adiposity (swelling and fattening) of the face, neck, and trunk.


Apraxia

Inability to carry out purposeful motor movements. Leftbrain lesion.


Dementia

MEMORY PLUS
Impairment in memory plus at least one of the following four conditions: aphasia apraxia agnosia disturbance in executive functioning 

Postconcussion Syndrome

headache, dizziness, fatigue, diminished concentration, memory deficit, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, hypochondriacal concern, hypersensitivity to noise, and photophobia.
MOST COMMON: IRRITABILITY, FATIGUE, HEADACHE, DIZZINESS 

Delirium

Acute onset and fluctuating course, clouded sensorium, and most likely reversable.


Sleep Stages

1 = little alpha, predominance of theta
2 = spindles (greatest amount of time) 3 and 4 = delta (hard to awaken) REM = EEG patterns of stage 1 with rapid eye movement 

Generalized Seizures

Tonic Clonic (Grand Mal)
Petit Mal (absence) 

Partial Seizures

Simple Partial (focal are of brain only)
Jacksonian (initially localized w/ spread to adjacent areas) Complex Partial (aura, purposeless bx, lip smacking, unintelligible speech) 

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

Hans Selye
Response to severe stress. Alarm Resistance Exhaustion 

Chlorpromazine

Thorzine (traditional antipsychotic)


Prolixin

Fluphenazine (traditional antipsychotic)


Stelazine

Trifluoperazine (traditional antipsychotic)


Haldol

haloperidol (traditional antipsychotic)


Navane

thiothixene (traditional antipsychotic)


Mellaril

thioridazine (traditional antipsychotic)


Clozaril

clozapine (novel antipsychotic)


Risperdal

risperidone (novel antipsychotic)


Zyprexa

olanzapine (novel antipsychotic)


Seroquel

quetiapine (novel antipsychotic)


Extrapyramidal Sx (EPS)

Movementrelated sx which are the most potentially damaging side effects of antipsychotics.
Dystonia (muscle spasms of neck, back, tongue, eyes or larynx) Parkinsonism (mask like face, shuffle) Akathisia Treated with anticholinergic agents (Cogentin, Artane) **Risperdal and Zyprexa do not cause. 

Elavil

amitryptyline (TCA)


Anafranil

clomipramine (TCA)


Tofranil

imipramine (TCA)


Prozac

fluoxetine (SSRI)


Zoloft

sertraline (SSRI)


Paxil

paroxetine (SSRI)


Nardil

phenelzine (MAOI)


Parnate

tranylcypromine (MAOI)


Wellbutrin

bupropion (other)


Xanax

alprazolam (anxiolytic)


Klonopin

clonazepam (anxiolytic)


Valium

diazepam (anxiolytic)


Ativan

lorazepam (anxiolytic)


Restoril

temazepam (sed/hyp)


Halcion

triazolam (sed/hyp)


Ambien

zolpidem (sed/hyp)


Tegretol

carbamazapine (anticonvulsant)


Neurontin

gabapentin (anticonvulsant)


Depakote

divalproex (anticonvulsant)


Dexedrine

dextroamphetamine (stimulant)


Ritalin

methylphenidate (stimulant)


Malpractice Lawsuit

Dereliction of Duty Directly causing Damages


Preamble of Ethics Code

Goals are "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with who psychologists work," as well as "the education of members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline."


Consultation

Somewhat familiar with treating a particular disorder but not an expert in that area or concerns about remaining objective.


Supervision

Applying a newly learned technique or beginning work with a specialized population.


Training

Unfamiliar with a certain area of knowledge.


Referring Out

therapist's personal beliefs interfer with the therapy, client feels uncomfortable with therapist, or therapist lacks competence in treating the presenting problem.


Statements by Others

Psychologists retain responsibility for public statements even when they hire someone to promote them or their practice. Must prevent others from making deceptive statements and correct them when possible. Prohibited to compensate a media employee for publicity. When paid ads are used, must be identified.


In Person Solicitation

Prohibited when people are vulnerable to undue influence.


Payments and FeeSplitting

Must be based on services provided. May never pay another professional for a referral.


Student Disclosure of Information

Prohibited unless it is necessary to help students who are having personal problems that interfere with clinical work or pose a risk of harm.


Professional Psychologists

Doctoral degree in psychology from an organized, sequential program in a regionally accredited university or professional school.


Records

Full Record = 3 years after tx complete
Full Record or Summary = 12 years Dispose of no earlier than 15 years after tx complete. 

Buckley Amendment

FERPA
Protects the privacy of student records in higher education institutions. 

Right of Accounting

Patients have the right to recieve an accounting of all the disclosures of their PHI for the past 6 years.


Griggs Versus Duke Power Company

I/O Case affected the issue of testing in the workplace. Tests that measured broad abilities, in which minorities passed at lower rates, were unfair to use to make decisions of hiring and promotion. **Tests must measure skills necessary for a particular job.


Adverse Impact

4/5ths Rule
Percentage of minorities selected must be at least 4/5ths of the percentage of nonminorities selected. (selection rate of nonminorities x .8) 

Unfairness

Minorities and nonminorities score differently on the predictor test yet perform similarly on the criterion. (2 parallel lines)


Differential Validity

Significantly different criterionrelated validity coefficients for different ethnic groups on the same test. More valid for predicting performance of one group than another.
**Actually rarely occurs. Result of low sample size. 

Critical Incident Technique

Method of obtaining data for a job analysis. Involves ascertaining the specific actions that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job.


Multiple Regression Approach

Selection Procedure
Compensatory Technique Low scores on one predictor can be compensated for by high scores on another predictor. 

Multiple Cutoff

Selection Procedure
Noncompensatory Technique Only applicants who meet or exceed the cutoff on each of the predictors will be considered. 

Multiple Hurdle

Selection Procedure
Noncompensatory Technique The predictors are applied in a particular order, and an applicant must pass the cutoff score on the first predictor in order to continue on in the selection process. **Efficient and Cost Effective 

BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales)

Evaluation method where behavioral anchors are based on critical incidents.
Problem = Scale development is expensive and time consuming, scales do not tend to measure actual day to day activities, but rather hypothetical situations. 

Training and Individual Differences

Overall, training does not always equalize differences in ability; it may actually magnify them.


Holland's PersonalityJob Fit Theory

Individuals and job traits can be matched and close matches will correlate with job success and satisfaction. (RIASEC)


Congruence

Holland
Degree of match between the personality type and the work environment. High = Longevity at the job 

Consistency

Holland
How closely related an individual's first two code letters are on the hexagon. Higher = stability in work hx 

Differentiation

Holland
Distinctness of a profile. (the more an individual is represented by one personality type, the more distinct) 

Environmental Identity

Holland
Individual's view that the work environment has a clear and stable system of goals and rewards. 

Vocational Identity

Holland
Clarity and stability of an individual's own goals and interests. High = Make decisions more easily and with greater confidence 

Super's Life/Career Rainbow

Career decision making involves a range of changes and decisions from career entry to retirement (developmental).
Growth (to 14) Exploratory (1524) Establishment (2544) Maintenance (4564) Decline/Disengagement (65+) **Career patterns are determined by SES, abilities, personal characteristics, and opportunities. **life roles **Express selfconcept through vocation 

Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory

(developmental)
Career development is based on social learning, environmental conditions and events, genetic influences, and learning experiences. **Choose career based on what you have learned through modeling and reinforcement. 

Tiedeman and O'Hara's Theory of Career Development

Differentiation = distinctions about different aspects of oneself and environment.
Integration = unifying different aspects which results in better decision making, more refined goals, and more useful plans. 

Schein's Career Anchor Theory

Person's selfconcept acts as an anchor, or stabilizing force, determining what future occupational decisions will be made.


Cognitive Resource Theory

(Leadership)
Looks at whether directive vs. nondirective leadership style will be more effective depending on the cognitive resources of the employees as well as stress levels, experience of leader, and group support for leader. 

Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model

(Leadership)
Decision Making Extent to which leaders allow their subordinates to participate in making decisions. 

House's PathGoal Theory

(Leadership)
Recommends that the leader increase personal payoffs for subordinates and make the paths to the payoffs easier by clarifying and reducing roadblocks. 

Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership

(Leadership)
Employees' Readiness to Perform If not ready, tell them what to do. If more ready, need less task orientation. (Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating) 

Most Important Reason for Complying with a Manager's Request

Presence of the combination of expert and referent power (incremental power).


RationalEconomic Model

(classical approach)
Involves basing decisions on a clear definition of the problem, knowing all possible alternatives and consequences of choices, and then choosing the optimum solution. 

Administrative Approach

(behavioral) (satisficing style)
Herbert Simon Used when problems are ambiguous, only partial knowledge is available, and the first satisfactory alternative is chosen. 

Job Enrichment

Giving employees a greater role in planning and performing their work (opportunity for satisfiers)
"Vertical Loading" =increased satisfaction and performance, decreased turnover, and decreased absenteeism 

Job Enlargement

Expands the variety of tasks the employee performs without increasing responsibility or autonomy.
"Horizontal Loading" =Increased satisfaction and only slightly affects job performance 

Alderfer's ERG Theory

Divides needs into those based on existence, relatedness, and growth. All needs may influence at the same time. If person is frustrated, will move towards a previously met need. Satisfying a need may make the need even stronger.


McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory

TAT to measure needs.
nACH  need for achievement nAFF  need for affiliation nPOWER  need for power *Needs are acquired over time. **People can be trained to think more like high nACH people. 

General Expectancy Theory/Vroom's ValenceInstrumentalityExpectancy (VIE)Theory

People behave in ways that are based on their perceived expectancy that certain rewards will follow.
Expectancy = success on the task Instrumentality = rewards Valence = value of rewards to person 

Adam's Equity Theory

Ratio of selfinputs/self outcomes vs. others' inputs/outcomes. Based on Social Comparison Theory.


Locke's Goal Setting Approach

1  goals should be specific
2  goals should be of intermediate to high level of difficulty 3  workers must receive feedback 4  a sense of selfefficacy will increase performance 5  employees must accept the goals** 

Organizational Development

Focuses on total organizational change and on systematic ways to bring about planned change.


Stages of Group Development

Forming
Storming Norming Performing Adjourning 

Ideal Group Size for Decision Making

5 or 7


Implosive Therapy

Stampfl
Conducted in imagination only. After the pt. is exposed to the feared object in imagination, the therapist interprets possible psychosexual themes. 

SelfControl Procedures

SelfReinforcement
SelfMonitoring (detailed record of what one does) Stimulus Control (narrowing the range of stimuli that elicit a particular bx) 

Overcorrection

Type of punishment that involves restitution or reparation, as well as physical guidance.


Kohler

Insight studies with chimps.


Tolman

Latent Learning


Ellis  Rational Emotive Therapy

Approaches problems in a direct and straight forward way by convincing pts of their irrationality.
Irrational Beliefs ABC Model (Activating event, Belief, Consequence) Direct Instruction, Persuasion, and Logical Disputation Active and Confrontative 

Beck  Cognitive Therapy

Empirical hypothesis testing as a means of changing existing beliefs.
Socratic Questioning (collaborative) Psych sx result from maladaptive thoughts (automatic and very often occur outside of cs awareness) Logical Errors, Faulty Conceptions, Self Signals *Depression results from a maladaptive cognitive triad. **Goal = identify and test negative cognitions, to develop more flexible schemas, and to rehearse new cog and bx responses. 

Meichenbaum  Cognitive Bx Modification

SelfInstruction Therapy
Stress Inoculation Training **focus on "selfstatements" Collaboration Socratic Style 

SelfInstruction Therapy

Meichenbaum
Combines modeling and graduated practice with ret to help pts that have problems with taks completion. 1. Therapist Modeling 2. Therapist Verbalization 3. Pt Verbalization 4. Pt Silently Talks Through the Task 5. Independent Task Performance **ADHD 

Stress Inoculation Training

Meichenbaum
**PTSD Bolstering of pt.'s repertoire of coping responses to milder stressors can decrease susceptibility to more severe stress. 

Rehm  Self Control Model of Depression

Depression is a result of negative selfevaluations, lack of selfreinforcement, and high rates of selfpunishment.


Ego Psychology

Focus on the ego's capacity for integration and adaptation.
Hartmann A. Freud Erikson 

Object Relations Theory

Deals with capacity to have mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships.


NeoFreudians

Focus on the impact of social and cultural factors in determining personality.
Sullivan Horney Fromm 

Sullivan

Interpersonal Theory
Personality exists only in an emotional exchange between people. Prototaxic (07 mos)serial sensation Parataxic (811 mos)sequential sensation Syntaxic (12 mos2 yrs)causal sensation 

Karen Horney

Neurosis develops from feelings of alienation, basic anxiety, and basic hostility that result from the child's discovery of helplessness in the face of allpowerful, indifferent adults.
Moving Toward, Moving Against, Moving Away 

Erich Fromm

Marx and Existentialist philosophers
Man's bx results from sociocultural and economic conditions. Having Mode and Being Mode 

Adler  Individual Psychology

Striving for superiority and personal competence. Motivated by social (aggressive) drives. Feelings of inferiority that motivate mastery or contribute to neurosis.
Teleological View of Bx 

Systematic Training in Effective Parenting (STEP)

Adler
Democratic approach to parenting that values and respects the child's contribution. Use natural and logical consequences of bx as the basis of discipline. 

(Adler/Dreikers) Child's Misbx Results From 4 Mistaken Goals

1. Attention
2. Control/Power 3. Revenge 4. Desire to be left alone 

Rogers  Client Centered Therapy

Incongruence/Congruence
Pathology is due to incongruence between the self and experience. Phenomenal Self Focus=Clarifying feelings without judging or elaborating upon them. Empathy, Warmth, Genuineness 

Perls  Gestalt Therapy

People structure experiences as whole, integrated organisms, not in cognitive or affective fragments. (figure and ground)
Focus=Becoming aware of whole personality by discovering those aspects of self that are blocked from awareness. INTEGRATION 

Glasser  Reality Therapy

Responsibility
Focuses on clarifying pt values and helping pt to evaluate current bx and plans in relation to these values. Key Element=Control Theory (juvenile delinquents and prison inmates) 

Berne  Transactional Analysis

Goal is for pt to become aware of the intent behind their communication and to eliminate deceit so that pt can interpret their own bx accuately.
Ego States, Transactions, Games, Strokes, Life Scripts 

Thermal Biofeedback vs. EMG Biofeedback

EMG is more effective for tension headaches as compared to thermal for migraines.


Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Bx Change

Precontemplation
Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance **Motivational Interviewing is an enhancement of this 

5 Factor Theory of Personality

Costa and McCrae
Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 

General Systems Theory

Homeostasis


Cybernetics

Circular nature of feedback loops.
Negative Feedback Loopdecrease deviation Positive Feedback Loopincrease deviation 

Psychodynamic Family Therapy

Facilitation of individual maturation in the context of the family system.
Marital Schism Marital Skew 

Object Relations Family Therapy

Framo
Focuses on transferences and projections between couples of family members. 

Structural Family Therapy

Minuchin
Family is viewed as a single, interrelated system, which is assessed according to hierarchy of power, clarity and firmness of boundaries, and significant alliances and splits. Rigid Triads: Triangulation, Detouring, Stable Coalition Tx=Taking Sides, Blaming, Forming Coalitions 

Communications Family Therapy  MRI

Satir, Watzlawick, Bateson, Jackson, Haley
Double Bind Addresses communication problems using indirect (paradoxical intervention) and direct (teaching and pointing out) techniques. 

Strategic Family Therapy

Haley
Views family's presenting problem and sx as a communicative act. Tx=resolving presenting problem only (defined by bx objectives and techniques) Focus=interrupting rigid feedback cycle and defining a clearer heirarchy (paradoxical interventions) 

Milan Group  Systematic Family Therapy

Circular questioning and prescription of rituals


Family Systems Theory

Bowen
Genograms Goal=personal differentiation from the familyoforigin, the ability to be one's true self in the face of familial or other pressures that threaten loss of love or social position. Emotional Triangle=closeness of 2 members excludes a third. 

Solution Focused Therapy

Steve de Shazer
Very brief Miracle Question Exception Question Scaling Question 

Narrative Therapy

Michael White
Sx do not serve functions, but rather they oppress people. Goal=help pt "restory" by casting difficulties as a struggle for control with a sx. 

Behavioral Family Therapy

Normal family functioning results when adaptive bx is rewarded, maladaptive bx is not reinforced, and the benefits of being a member of the family outweigh the costs.
**In troubled families, maladaptive bx is reinforced by family attention. Tx=concrete, oberservable behavioral goals. 

Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy

Relationship related cognitions are seen as the underlying cause of feelings and bx of family members.


Ideal Group Composition

Heterogeneous in terms of conflict
Homogeneous in terms of ego strength 7 or 8 members range of 5 to 10 

Eysenck MetaAnalysis

2/3 of all neurotics improved over a 2 year period whether or not they received tx.
Also noted that treated people seemed to do worse than nontreated people. 

Average Effect Size of Tx

.85


Improvement by 8th Session

50% of patients are measurably improved


Improvement by End of Six Months

75% of patients were measurably improved.


Seligman Effectiveness Study

90% of treated pts doing well
longterm tx yielded better outcomes 

True Experimental Research

At least 1 IV is manipulated
Subjects randomly assigned 

QuasiExperimental Research

At lease 1 IV is manipulated
Nonrandom assignment (preexisting groups) 

Observational, Passive, or Nonexperimental Research

No intervention or manipulation
Sometimes called "correlational" 

Between Groups Design

Independent Data


Within Subjects Design

Correlated Dat
matched repeated measures inherent relationship 

Counterbalancing

Used to deal with carryover effects inherent in repeated measures.
Latin Square 

Mixed Design

Both independent and correlated groups.


Single Subject Design

Idiographic
AB, ABAB, Multiple Baseline, Simultaneous Tx, and Changing Criterion **Problem=Autocorrelation 

Group Subject Design

Nomothetic


AB Design

A baseline condition is followed by a tx condition.
**Threat=History 

ABAB Design

Baseline and tx conditions are alternationed: tx, baseline, tx, baseline
**Protects against treat of history **Problems=failure of IV to return to baseline, ethics regarding removal of effective tx 

Multiple Baseline Design

Tx is applied SEQUENTIALLY or CONSECUTIVELY across subjects, situations, or bx.
Resolves problems associated with AB and ABAB designs, but is more time consuming and $$. 

Changing Criterion Design

Attempt to change bx in increments to match a changing criterion.
10 cups one day, then 8 the next, and then 6 the third day. 

Time Sampling

Behavioral Measurement
Useful for bx that is not discrete, thus has no beginning or end. Momentary Whole Interval 

Momentary Time Sampling

Observer records whether target bx is present or absent at the moment the time interval ends.


WholeInterval Sampling

Scoring target bx positively only if it is exhibited for the full duration of the time interval.


Event Recording

Tallying the number of times the target bx occurred.
Useful for a target bx that is discrete and occurs infrequently. 

Simple Random Sampling

Every member of the population has an equal chance of being randomly selected.


Stratified Random Sampling

Population divided into strata and then a random sample of equal size of each strata is selected.
(ex. divide into various SES levels and then select equal numbers from each SES) 

Proportional Sampling

Subjects randomaly selected in proportion to their representation in the general population.


Systematic Sampling

Selecting every kth element after a random start. (ex. every 10th person is selected)


Cluster Sampling

Identifying naturally occurring groups of subjects and randomly selecting certain clusters. (schools in school district  randomly select 10 schools)


Threats to Internal Validity

Factors other than the IV that may have caused the change in the DV.
History (Control Group) Maturation (Control Group) Testing Practice (Solomon Four Group Design) Instrumentation (Control Group) Statistical Regression (Control Group) Selection Bias (Random Assignment) Attrition Diffusion (tighter control of experiment) 

Solomon Four Group Design

Helps control for effects of testing practice.
Divide subjects into 4 groups. One=pre and post test, intervention in between Two=pre and post test, but no intervention Three=intervention and post Four=pre and intervention 

Threats to Construct Validity

Refers to factors other than the desired specifics of intervention that result in differences.
Attention and Contact w/ Subjects Experimenter Expectancies (Rosenthal Effect) (Blind Experimenter) Demand Characteristics (Blind Subjects) John Henry Effects (groups should not know about each other) 

Threats to External Validity

Whether results can be generalized from sample studied to the population.
Sample Characteristics Stimulus Characteristics Contextual Characteristics (Reactivity  Hawthorne Effect) 

Reactivity

When subjects behave in a particular way just because they are participating in research and being observed (Hawthorne Effect).
Threat to External Validity 

Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity

Low Power
Unreliability of Measures Variability in Procedures Subject Heterogeneity 

Low Power

Diminished ability to find significant results.
Small Sample Size Inadequate Interventions 

The Greater the Internal Validity

The Lower the External Validity


Best Measure of Central Tendency

Mean
**Median when data is skewed or extreme scores are present 

Variance

standard deviation squared


Positive Skew

Higher proportion of scores in lower range of values (peak near y axis)
Mode, Median, Mean 

Negative Skew

Higher proportion of scores in the higher range of values.
Peak far from the y axis. Mean, Median, Mode 

Leptokurtotic

Very sharp peak


Platykurtotic

flattened distribution


Percentage Correct

Criterionreferenced Score
Domainreferenced Score 

Percentile Rank

How person scored relative to group.
Normreferenced Score 

Standard Scores

Based on SD of sample.
Zscores tscores IQ scores SAT scores EPPP scores **Zscores are most basic and correspond directly to SD (mean=0, SD=1) Always identical to raw score distribution. 

Percentile Ranks

50
84 97.5 99.9 **If points are added to 2 people in distribution, there will be a greater change in rank for person at midrange as opposed to tail. 

Zscore formula

Z=Xmean/SD


Raw Score Formula

X=mean + or  Z(SD)


Standard Error of the Mean

Average amount of deviation of a sample mean.
=SDpop/√N Varies directly with SDpop Varies indirectly with N 

Region of Unlikely Values

Rejection Region
At tail end of curve Unlikely that a researcher will obtain means in this region simply because of chance. Corresponds to alpha level (when .05, rejection region is 5% of curve). **When obtained values fall in rejection region, null is rejected, and tx had an effect. 

Type I Error

Null is incorrectly rejected, i.e., differences were found and they do not exist.
**Size of alpha directly corresponds to the likelihood of making this error. 

Type II Error

The null is incorrectly accepted, i.e., no differences are found when differences actually do exist.
**Probability of making this error corresponds to beta (inverse relationship w/ alpha). 

Power

When null is rejected and it turns out to be correct.
Ability to correctly reject the null. Increased when sample size is large, random error is small, magnitude of intervention is large, statistical test is parametric, and test is onetailed. **Power=1beta. Beta has the most significant and measurable effect on power. As alpha increases, so does power. 

Assumptions for Parametric Tests

Interval or ration data
Homoscedasticity (similar variability) Normally distributed data 

Violations of Homoscedasticity

Okay as long as an equal number of subjects is used in each cell.


Chi Square

Test of Difference
Nominal One IV 2 or more groups Independent 

Multiple Sample Chi Square

Test of Difference
Nominal >one IV 2 or more groups (per IV) Independent groups 

McNemar

Test of Difference
Nominal one or more IV 2 or more groups (per IV) Correlational 

Kolmogorov

Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV 1 group independent ordinal data 

t test single sample

Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV 1 group independent I/R data 

t test independent samples

Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV 2 groups independent I/R data 

Mann Whitney, Median Test, or KolmogorovSmirnov

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV 2 groups independent Ordinal data 

Wilcoxon or Sign Test

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV 2 groups correlational Ordinal data 

t test matched samples

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV 2 groups correlational I/R data 

1 Way ANOVA

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV >2 groups independent I/R data 

Kruskall Wallis

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV >2 groups independent Ordinal data 

1 Way Repeated Measures ANOVA

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV >2 groups correlational I/R data 

Friedman

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV >2 groups correlational Ordinal data 

2 Way ANOVA or Factorial ANOVA

Difference
2 IV's 2 groups or more per IV both IV's  groups independent I/R data 

Mixed ANOVA or Split Plot ANOVA

Difference
2 IV's 2 groups or more per IV 1 IV  groups independent 1 IV  groups correlational I/R data 

Repeated Measures Factorial ANOVA

Difference
2 IVs 2 groups or more per IV both IVsgroups correlational I/R data 

Randomized Block ANOVA

Difference
2 IVs 2 or more groups per IV both IVsgroups independent one blocked I/R data ***study the effect of a confounding variable 

ANCOVA

Difference
2 IVs 2 groups or more per IV with Covariate independent and/or correlational groups I/R data ***paritaling out or getting rid of confounding variable 

MANOVA

Difference
>1 DV 2 groups or more per IV independent and/or correlational groups I/R data 

Single Sample ChiSquare Degrees of Freedom

df=#groups  1


Multiple Sample ChiSquare Degrees of Freedom

df=(#rows1)x(#columns1)


t test single sample degrees of freedom

df=N1


t test for matched or correlated samples degrees of freedom

df=# pairs1


degrees of freedom for t test independent samples

df=N2


degrees of freedom for one way ANOVA

df total=N1
df between groups=#groups1 df within groups=df totaldf between groups 

Expected Frequencies in a ChiSquare

Data in Each Cell:
Sum of the row x Sum of the Column/N N and Groups are given: Freq=N/total # of cells 

F Ratio for One Way ANOVA

=MSbg/MSwg
**When F=1, no significance. ***When F>2, significance. 

Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type I

Scheffe and Tukey


Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type II Error (least protection from Type I)

Fisher's LSD


Advantage of 2 Way ANOVA

Not only permits analysis of main effects (significance) for each IV, but also permits analysis of interaction effects.
**When an interaction is significant, main effects must be interpreted with caution. (Interaction must be interpreted first) 

Trend Analysis

Extension of the ANOVA.
Used to analyze nonlinear data such as, doage of drugs, hours of food deprivation, etc. 

Coefficient of Determination

=correlation coefficient squared
Represents the amount of variability in Y that is shared with, explained by, or accounted for by X. 

Simple Linear Regression Equation

Derived based on the line of best fit through the scatter plot and is calculated using the least squares criterion.
Regression Equation: Y=a+bX 

Eta

Used to calculate the correlation between X and Y when it is thought that X and Y have a curvilinear relationship.


Pearson r

Correlation
X and Y=I/R data 

Spearman's Rho or Kendall's Tau

Correlation
X and Y=ordinal data 

PointBiserial

Correlation
X=I/R data Y=true dichotomy 

Biserial

Correlation
X=I/R data Y=artificial dichotomy 

Phi

Correlation
X and Y=true dichotomies 

Tetrachoric

Correlation
X and Y=artificial dichotomies 

Partial Correlation

Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the effect of a third variable removed.


Part (Semipartial)Correlation

Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the influence of a third variable removed from only one of the original variable.s


Moderator Variable

Variable that influences the strength of the relationship between the predictor and the criterion.


Mediator Variable

Explaines why there is a relationship between the predictor and the criterion.


Multiple R

Correlation
2 or more IVs (at least 1 I/R data) 1 DV (I/R data) 

Optimize Ability to Predict

Low correlation between predictors (X) and a moderate to high correlation between each predictor and the criterion (Y).


Multicollinearity

Problem that occurs in a multiple regression when the predictors are highly correlated with one another (redundant).


Stepwise Regression

Computer generated, implemented backward or forward.
Allows researcher to come up with fewest possible predictors. 

Hierarchical Regression

Researcher controls analysis, adding variables to analysis in order that is most consistent with the theory being proposed.


Canonical R

Extension of multiple R.
Correlation between 2 or more IVs and 2 or more DVs. 

Discriminant Function Analysis

Multiple Regression
2 or more IVs (X) and 1 criterion (Y). Used when the criterion (Y) is nominal (categorical) rather than I/R data. **Predict membership in a group. 

Loglinear Analysis

Logit Analysis
Used to predict categorical criterion (Y) based on categorical predictors (X). 

Path Analysis

Apply correlational techniques to causal modeling.
Applies multiple regression techniques to testing a model that specifies causal links among variables. **researcher already has causal model 

Structural Equation Modeling

Enables researchers to make inferences about causation. Used to test out many different causal pathways.
**LISREL 

Factor Analysis

Test of Structure
Extracts as many significant factors from the data as is possible. Eigenvalue=strength of factor (>1) Orthogonal Rotation Oblique Rotation Communality 

Orthogonal Rotation

(Factor Analysis)
Axes remain perpendicular. Always results in factors that have no correlation with one another. Easier to interpret. Communalities can be interpreted. 

Communalities

(Orthogonal Rotation)
How much of a test's variability is explained by the combination of all the factors. Factor loadings are squared and added together. 

Oblique Rotations

(Factor Analysis)
Angle between the axes is nonperpendicular and the factors are correlated. **Some prefer as factors do tend to be correlated in the real world. 

Principle Components Analysis

Used when one is trying to extract factors and there is no empirical or theoretical guidance on the values of the communalities. (A few uncorrelated factors  components)
Key Issue=factors are empirically derived and the researcher has no prior hypotheses. 

(Principle) Factor Analysis

Communality values need to be ascertained before the analysis.


Cluster Analysis

Test of Structure
Involves gathering data on a variety of dependent variables and statistically looking for naturally occurring subgroups in the data. Performed without any a priori hypotheses. 

Minimum Acceptable Reliability

.80


Coefficient of Stability

Test Retest Reliability
Administer the identical test at 2 points in time. Error=time sampling 

Coefficient of Equivalence

Parallel Forms Reliability
Administer 2 roughly equivalent but not identical forms of the same test at 2 points in time. Practice effects are minimized. Error=time and content sampling 

Internal Consistency Reliability

Consistency of scores within the test.
Split Half and Kuder Richardson or Chronbach's Alpha 

Split Half Reliability

Calculated by splitting the test in half and then correlating the scores obtained on each half by each person.
**Spearman Brown Prophecy Formula is used to compensate for reducing number of questions by half Error=item or content sampling ***Inappropriate for speeded tests 

Kuder Richardson (KR20 and KR21) and Chronbach's Alpha

More sophisticated.
Analysis of correlation of each item with ever other item in the test (every possible split half) KR20=dichotomous and vary in difficulty level KR21=dichotomous and equal difficulty Chronbach's=nondichotomous 

Interrater Reliability

Pearson r, Kappa Statistic, Yule's Y


Standard Error of Measurement

Smeas=SDx√1rxx
Range=0 to SD 

Confidence Intervals

Used to report a person's score.
Need: Standard Error of Measurement Actual Score 

Content Validity

How adequately a test samples a particular content area.
Quantified by asking a panel of experts if each item is essential, etc. 

Criterion Related Validity

How adequately a test score can be used to infer, predict, or estimate criterion outcome. (rxy)
Concurrent Predictive 

Concurrent Validity

Criterion Related Validity
Predictor and criterion are measured and correlated at about the same time. 

Predictive Validity

Criterion Related Validity
There is a delay between the measurement of the predictor and the criterion. 

Standard Error of Estimate

Sest=SDy√1rxy²
Range=0 to SDy 

Taylor Russell Tables

Numerically describe the amount of improvement that occurs in selection when a predictor test is introduced.
Base Rate=rate of successful employees Selection Ratio=proportion of available openings to applicants (low is many applicants) Incremental Validity=amount of improvement in success rate that results from using predictor test **Optimized when base rate is moderate (.5) and selection ratio is low (.1) 

Item Response Theory

Used to calculate to what extent a specific item on a test correlates with an underlying construct.
Performance on a test item respresents the degree to which subject has a latent trait. Used to develop individually tailored adaptive tests where an answer to one question determines whether another question will be asked. (few number of questions) 

Shrinkage

Cross validation always results in shrinkage of the criterion related validity coefficient.


Relationship between Reliability and Validity

Reliability sets a ceiling on validity.
Validity≦√Reliability 

Correction for Attenuation Formula

Calculates how much higher validity would be if the predictor and criterion were both perfectly reliable.


Construct Validity

How adequately a new test measures a construct or trait. (hypothetical concept that cannot be measured directly)
Factor Analysis Multitrait, multimethod matrix 

Convergent Validity

Part of Construct Validity
Correlation of scores on new test with other available measures of same trait. 

Divergent Validity

Part of Construct Validity
Discriminant Validity Correlation of scores on the new test with scores on another test that measures a different trait or construct. 