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30 Cards in this Set

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large stone structure
the name given to the remains of a large public building in the City of David neighborhood of central Jerusalem, south of the Old City, tentatively dated to 10th to 9th century BCE. The name was given to the structure, as a result of its proximity with another site known as the Stepped Stone Structure, which probably supported it, by the discoverer of the site, Eilat Mazar. also found a large captial there. proves israelites did exist in the Jerusalem area (or someone had a palace during iron age israel, when david was king)
proto aeolic captial
found near the large stone structure
siloam inscription
a passage of inscribed text found in the Hezekiah tunnel. The inscription records the construction of the tunnel in the 8th century BCE. It is among the oldest extant records of its kind written in Hebrew
step-stone structure
leads down to large stone structure
baal
ugaritic text (epic of baal), baal in competition with yam. sarna--torah is a response to these texts, our God is not in conflict with nature
de-mytholization
Torah might do this. “The language of mythology has been borrowed and transformed into a statement asserting the inevitable defeat of evil man.”
mesha
inscription found in syria, only piece of moabite writing, very similar to hebrew, similar line of events as tanach, has similar theology to torah
parallelism (tikbolet nirdefet)
common in hebrew, found in ugarit also
ugaritic
-Ugarit: On the Mediterranean coast of Syria. Found a lot of stuff there (1928), with many languages, including a newly discovered language called Ugaritic, very similar structure to hebrew
yamm
see baal, god of the sea in the epic of the baal (a ugartitic writing)
akkadian
mesopotamian language, was like english, jews lived in mesopotamia, an/duraru like "ukratem dror" judaism institutionalizes social justice
cuneiform
invented by the sumerians, wedge shaped writing
code of hammurabi
old babylonian law code. In the prologue he says that his god commanded him to make the law. Hammurabi established the laws himself; violations against the law are against king strict eye for an eye.compare to torah, we have a more just system
mesopotamia
assyria, babylonia, influenced judaism (eshnunna code) b/c jews lived there
4 assumptions
James Kugel: Four Assumptions about the Bible made by early interpreters:
• Relevant
• Perfect—all there, no mistakes, no contradictions, “omnisignificant” (everything in scripture is significant)
• Cryptic—requires interpretations (the words are hard, alternate meanings)
• Divine—not clear where Kugel sees this
inner biblical exegesis
one part of the bible exegeting another (divrei hayamim), bayit sheni time
omnisignificance of scripture
everything in scripture is necessary, assumed in aggadah
peshar
The pesharim give a theory of scriptural interpretation, previously partly known, but now fully defined. The writers of pesharim believe that scripture is written in two levels, the surface for ordinary readers with limited knowledge, the concealed one for specialists with higher knowledge
qumran
caves where the dead sea scrolls were found
Mechilta
One of the oldest collections of Midrashei Halacha (on Shemot). Dates to 300 CE (end of the Tanaim). The one usually quoted is מכילתא דרבי ישמעאל (as opposed to Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai’s Mechilta).
ms leipzig I
A Biblical manuscript from the 13th Century, probably the most similar to the one Rashi used. The margins contain comments by Rabbi Shemaya, Rashi’s student.
rav shemaya
Rashi’s student, wrote a similar styled commentary on Torah and Talmud. Shemiah also wrote corrections and glosses on Rashi’s commentary. Unfortunately, we do not have much of Shemaya’s commentary.
12th century renaissance
• Avraham Grossman: 12th Century Renaissance (was happening in the Christine biblical world also)
• Positive: Renewed interested in the “plain sense”
o In context of 12th Century rationalism (less focus on “legend and folktale”).
o Obviously the idea of “pshat” predates this, but kind-of explains why it took off at this time
• Negative: Leads to polemic over the meaning of the text (between Jews and Christians). Biblical interpretation important in many of the polemics.
ibn hayyuj
discovery of the triconnsonantal/trilateral root (Ibn Hayyuj, the “father of Hebrew grammar”); influenced by arabs
menahem ben saruq
He wrote, Mahberet, the first complete Hebrew dictionary. He did a lot of work with shorashim, grouping together roots and then describing its different meanings. He also insisted on writing in Hebrew, not Arabic, he triggered a revitalization of Hebrew as the national language.
rasag
R’ Sadia Gaon wrote at the time a hebrew dictionary called ספר האגרון and is arranged alphabetically and also arranged with the ending of each word for rhyming. He said he wrote this dictionary for the poets. He even put in טעמי המיקרא so you know how to recite the words
mahberet
Menachem’s Mahberet: First dictionary in Hebrew (translated Biblical Hebrew into contemporary Hebrew)
ספר הרקמה
by ibn janach, on dikduk, in arabic; many words used just for parallelism's sake
dunash ibn labrat
spanish hebrew poetry, arabic meter, transitive and nontrasitive verbs in hebrew, dispute with saruq
nachatz
emphasis, see sefer harikmah