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31 Cards in this Set

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Induction (7,22); n09/06/07
One cell or tissue directs the development of another neighboring cell or tissue;
One of two ways of how a cell can determine its fate
Morphogenesis (15)
-The third developmental process: change in form
Cell Differentiation (15)
Fourth Developmental process: cells become structurally and functionally different from each other, ending up as distinct cell types (i.e. blood, muscle, skin)
Committed Cell
= determined?? see pg 300

Developmental fate becomes restricted
Specified Cell (20)
Fig 1.21
A cell or group of cells that when isolated and cultured in the neutral environment of a simple culture medium away from the embryo, it or they develop more or less according to their normal fate
Determined Cell
A cell with a stable change in the internal state of a cell
Differentiated Cell
A cell that has become structurally and functionally distinct according to its cell fate. It has achieved a terminal and usually stable state in which a change in gene expression can be observed by distinctive housekeeping and cell specific proteins.
Regulative Development (21)
embryos that have a potential of cells much greater than that indicated by their normal fate
Mosaic Development (21)
embryos that from a very early stage can develop only according to their early fate
Cell Autonomous (23)
cell that develops without new signals from another cell
Paracrine Signalling

<Choosing cell fate: Autonomous or Induced:Juxtacrine, GAP Junctions, Paracrine Signalling>
diffusable molecules are secreted into extracellular space and binds to a specific receptor causing a conformational change in receptor initiating 2nd msg cascade
Juxtacrine Signalling

<Choosing cell fate: Autonomous or Induced:Paracrine, GAP Junctions, Juxtacrine Signalling>
Involves direct contact between two cells, where the extracellular ligand is immobile
-binds to receptor causing a conformational change in receptor initiating 2nd msg cascade
Embryogenesis (1)
The development of an embryo from the fertilized egg
Embryology (2)
The study of developmental biology
Cell Fate
What a cell will normally develop into, however is not the only fate a cell can have.
GAP Junction

<Choosing cell fate: Autonomous or Induced:Paracrine,Juxtacrine Signalling,GAP Junctions>
A "tunnel" connects two cells and the ligand remains intracellular
Ligand (cell bio. gloss.)
molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein (i.e. a receptor)
Receptor (cell bio. gloss.)
A cell protein that binds a specific extracellular signal molecule and initiates a response in the cell.
Exon (cell bio. gloss.)
segment of a gene that is transcribed into mRNA and expressed
Intron (cell bio. gloss.)
non-coding region of a gene that is transcribed into an RNA molecule but is then spliced out to produce mRNA
Spliceosome (cell bio. gloss.)
Large assembly of RNA and protein molecules that performs pre-mRNA splicing in a cell
Phenotype (cell bio. gloss.), (9)
observable character of a cell
Genotype (cell bio. gloss.), (9)
set of genes carried by an individual cell
Extracellular Matrix (cell bio. gloss.)
complex network of polysaccharides and proteins secreted by cells
RNA processing
broad term for the modifications an RNA undergoes as it matures. Typically includes capping of the 5' end, splicing, and the addition of the poly-a-tail
Competent (22)
the ability of a cell to respond to an inducing signal
Morphogen (24)
A chemical whose concentration varies and is involved in pattern formation.
Morphogenetic gradient (24)
threshold that represents the amount of morphogen that must bind to receptors to activate an intracellular signalling system or concentrations of transcription factors required to activate particular genes.
Signal Transduction (303)
the process by which signals bind to receptors in the cell membrane and relay a signal to the cell's nucleus-- type of signalling pathway from a receptor
A specific DNA sequence where RNA polymerase is recruited; the site of transcription which the rna-p binds to and transcription of a gene is initiated
Transcription Factors (301/302)
binding of RNA-p to the correct region of DNA to begin transcription requires a transcription factor which form an initiation compldx with the polymerase at the promoter site.