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48 Cards in this Set

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What are the four chemical components that constitutes cells?
Proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and polysaccharides.
What is the cytoplasmic membrane?
The barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside.
What is cytoplasm?
Material in which structures and chemicals inside the cell are suspended.
What are the 6 characteristics of living systems?
Metabolism, reproduction, differentiation, communication and evolution.
What is metabolism?
The uptake of nutirents from the environment, their transformation within the cell and elimination of wastes into the environment. The cell is thus an open system.
What is reproduction (for cells)?
Chemicals from the environment are turned into new cells under the direction of preexisting cells.
What is differentiation?
Formation of a new cell structure such as a spore, usually as part of a cellular life cycle.
What are the coding functions of cells?
Via DNA, replication or gene expression via transcription to RNA that undergoes translation into protein that leads to reproduction (growth)
What are the machine functions of cells?
Energy: ADP + P --> ATP; metabolism: generation of precursors of macromoluecules; Enzymes: metabolic catalysts
What is necessary for the machine and coding functions of a cell to work?
There must be adequate energy from the chemical machinery & precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules plus DNA replication.
What is the link between the machine and coding device?
Growth (reproduction)
Define microbial habitat:
the location in an environment where the microbial population live
What are the four chemical components that constitutes cells?
Proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and polysaccharides.
Define microbial community:
In microbial habitats, a population of cells rarely live alone, rather they live and interact with other populations in microbial communities.
What is the cytoplasmic membrane?
The barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside.
What is cytoplasm?
Material in which structures and chemicals inside the cell are suspended.
How do microorganisms (mo) change the chemical and physical properties of their habitats?
By removing nutrients from the environment via metabolic processes to build new cells & @ the same time excrete waste products, over time this cycling of nutrients changes the habitat.
Give an example of how mo change the habitat?
Aerobes make an oxic habitat anoxic.
What are the 6 characteristics of living systems?
Metabolism, reproduction, differentiation, communication and evolution.
What is metabolism?
The uptake of nutirents from the environment, their transformation within the cell and elimination of wastes into the environment. The cell is thus an open system.
What is reproduction (for cells)?
Chemicals from the environment are turned into new cells under the direction of preexisting cells.
What is differentiation?
Formation of a new cell structure such as a spore, usually as part of a cellular life cycle.
What are the coding functions of cells?
Via DNA, replication or gene expression via transcription to RNA that undergoes translation into protein that leads to reproduction (growth)
What are the machine functions of cells?
Energy: ADP + P --> ATP; metabolism: generation of precursors of macromoluecules; Enzymes: metabolic catalysts
What is necessary for the machine and coding functions of a cell to work?
There must be adequate energy from the chemical machinery & precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules plus DNA replication.
What is the link between the machine and coding device?
Growth (reproduction)
Define microbial habitat:
the location in an environment where the microbial population live
Define microbial community:
In microbial habitats, a population of cells rarely live alone, rather they live and interact with other populations in microbial communities.
How do microorganisms (mo) change the chemical and physical properties of their habitats?
By removing nutrients from the environment via metabolic processes to build new cells & @ the same time excrete waste products, over time this cycling of nutrients changes the habitat.
Give an example of how mo change the habitat?
Aerobes make an oxic habitat anoxic.
How are MO important in food and agriculture?
Food: cheese and yogurt
Agriculture: legumes have nodules that have bacteria that convert N2 --> NH3 (fertilizer), also rumen in farm animals
How are MO important for energy?
biofuels can be made by MO, eg. methanol and ethanol
How are MO important for biotechnology?
For genetic engineering, like for insulin.
Who invented the first microscope?
Leeuwenhoeck in 1676 created a single lense microscope.
Who is Ferdinand Cohn?
He recognized the difference betewen prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular organization; discovered bacterial endospores and founded field of bacteriology
What did Louis Pasteur do?
Discredited the theory of spontaneous generation.
What did Koch do?
Grew the first pure cultures, created the solid media, discovered cause of TB, developed criteria for study of infectous MOs.
Koch's Postulates:

Step One - Observe
Observe - pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from the healthy animals.
Koch's Postulates:

Step Two - Isolate
The suspected organism should be grown in a pure culture.
Koch's Postulates:

Step Three - Infect
Cells from a pure culture should cause disease in the healthy animal.
Koch's Postulates:

Step Four - Re-Isolate
The organism should be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original.
Who is Walter Hesse?
Discovered the quantitative determination of MOs contained in the atmosphere
Who's Beljernick?
Created the concept of the virus and enrichment culture technique that provides the conditions for selection
Who's Winogradsky?
Concept of chemolithotrophy (use of other compound) and autotrophy ( CO2 as sole source of C) see fig 1.16 in book
What are the shapes of bacteria?
Coccus
Rod
Spiriling
Spirochete
Budding appendage
Filamentous
What is the advatage for MO cells to be so small?
A metabolic advantage.
What do prokaryotes consist of?
Bacteria and Archaea
Define: virus
Major class of MO, but they aren't cells, lack many attributes of cells, most imp. they aren't open systems; viruses are static structures and only reproduce when it infects