Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/32

Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
M check point
this check is to make sure the chromasomes are aligned
before mitosis
G1 check point
hormone signal presant and there are all the proper parts available to continue
G2 check point
At this check point the DNA must be intact and not damaged
Apoptosis
the self destruction of a cell usefull for stoping cancer and getting rid of your tail or seperating your fingers.
Centromere
this is what binds the sister chromatids after the chromasomes seperate, it is also where the spindle fibers are atached during mitosis
Diploid
Pairs of chromosomes
What part of the cycle is considered interphase
G1
S
G2
Mitosis
This is where a cell duplicates it chromasones and where cytokanesis is going to follow
Chromatid
A chromatid is one of two identical strands of DNA making up a chromasome
Chromosone
Large macromolecules that package and manage Dna
S stage
This is when the doubling of the DNA happens S = Synthesis
Meiosis
when a cell seperates into 4 smaller cells criticle during sexual reproduction
G1 stage
Most of the growth happens here this is when the cell is getting the materials together
M Stage
this is when mytoisis occures and cytokanesis the cell actually splitting
1. What is meant by diploid vs haploid
A diploid has pairs of chromosomes and haploids have only one of each
If a diploid cell with 8 different pairs of chromosomes goes through mitosis, then each daughter cell will have 8 pairs of chromosomes, but it doesn’t matter which chromosomes. True or false? Explain
False, the daughter cells must have an exact copy of the genetic coding in each (homolougos)individual chromosome to be a working copy
PROPHASE
Prophase= centrasome starts moving apart and the nucleus disappears then the spindle is forming and the chromosomes are attaching to he centromeric spindle fibers
METAPHASE
Chromosomes are at the equater on the fully formed spindle (they meet)
ANAPHASE
Daughter chromosomes start moving toward the poles of the spindle
TELOPHASE
Cleavage furrow starts
Daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes. Chromosomes will become indistinct cromatin
5. How & why does cytokinesis differ between plant and animal cells?
animal cells start with a cleavage furrow
Plant cytokinesis starts with a cell plate
6. The DNA from one of your cells is as long as a football field! How does it all wind up in a cell too small to see with the naked eye?
It is put into Histone then
Nucleosomes
Then Looped chromatin
Then Condensed chromatin
then a condensed chromosome
7. How do chromosomes get to each pole?
It is pulled by the centromeric spindle fibers to the poles
Second the poler spindle fibers push the pole apart as they lengthen adn slide past each other, pulling the daughter chromosomes together
9. Why is meiosis known as “reduction division” while mitosis is known as “equation division
Meiosis reduces the amount of chromosomes to singles
Mitosis is equation division because when it is done there are equal number of chromosomes in the new cell as the mother cell
10. What is meant by diploid vs haploid? 2N vs N?
Diploid is a pair of chromosomes
Haploid is single chromosoems
What is meant by “sister chromatids”? “homologous chromosomes”?
Sister chromatids are copies of each other
Homologous chromosomes are individual chromosomes
12. Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis.
Mitosis is making a copy of a cell for repair or building

Meiosis is making a copy of a cell for reproduction
13. What is meant by “crossover”?
This is when an exchange of nonsister chromosomes of the homologous pair this allows the parant chromasome to give the new cwll different combinations of genes than there own
14. Define and relate “gene”. “allele” and “trait
Genes contain the information to produce organisims like humans or a human eye

Alleles,DNA code that occupies a given position on a chromosoem Alleles are alternate forms of a gene that produces different traits like brown eyes or blue eyes

Traits, these are the different characteristics of the same thing like brown or blue eyes

Trait,
15. Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis
In Meiosis replicaton happens 2 times and results it 4 daughter cells that are haploids, and these cells are not genetically identical to each other or to the parant
The phenomenon of synapsis drives the differences between meiosis and mitosis. Explain
this is when the homologous chromosomes line up side by side which leads to the reduction of the chromosome number, and differences in the new cells
Why does meiosis result in new genetic combinations (variations) and mitosis result in “clones” (no genetic variation)?
Because during meiosis crossing over of non sister chromosones occures and indepnedant alingnment occure allowing for different combinations of traits in mitosisis there is no crossing over and the chromasones line up in a straight line keeping them identicle