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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List 3 genes that are common to all retroviruses.
1. gag
2. pol
3. env
What do the long terminal repeats (LTR) of the HIV genome contain?
1. Virus promotor
2. Transcriptional terminator
3. Polyadenylation sequence
Which precursor protein contains all the structural proteins of the interior of the virion?
Gag
When is gag cleaved?
During maturation
(cleaved by viral protease--PR)
Which HIV gene product encodes four enzymes?
Pol
(encodes: PR, IN, RT, and RNase H)
What is the precursor protein of the envelope glycoproteins?

What cleaves this protein?
Env

Cleaved by host enzymes during cellular transport to the plasma membrane
List 2 required regulatory genes in the HIV genome.
1. Tat
2. Rev
Which HIV regulatory protein is a "transcriptional transactivator" necessary for expression of viral genes?
Tat
Which HIV regulatory protein is necessary for the transport of late mRNAs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?
Rev
List 4 accessory genes not required for replication, but critical in host pathogenesis.
1. Nef
2. Vif
3. Vpr
4. Vpu
Which accessory gene downregulates expression of CD4 and MHC class 1 molecules on the surface of infected cells?
Nef
Which accessory gene inhibits host restriction mechanisms (degrades APOBEC family)?
vif
("viral infectivity factor")
Which accessory gene transports viral core into the nucleus of nondividing cells?
vpr
Which accessory gene enhances the release of budding virions from the cell and downregulates CD4?
vpu
(counters tetherin)
List the first 5 steps in the HIV replication cycle.
1. Attachment
2. Fusion
3. Reverse transcription
4. Integration
List the last 6 steps of the HIV replication cycle.
1. Transcription
2. RNA export
3. Translation
4. Assembly and package
5. Release
6. Maturation
Which protein mediates RNA export during HIV replication?
Rev
What type of drugs inhibit steps 1 and 2 of HIV replication?
Peptide fusion inhibitors
What are the two types of RT inhibitors?
1. Nucleoside NRTIs
2. Non-nucleoside NNRTIs
How do nucleoside NRTIs work?
Analogs of A, C, G, or T that act at active site; competitive inhibitors of the polymerase
How do non-nucleoside NNRTIs work?
Compounds that bind to RT outside of the active site and inhibit its activity.
What type of drugs inhibit the integration step in HIV replication?
Integrase enzyme inhibitors
HAART is a combination of what treatments?
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a protease inhibitor
Which cells does HIV infect?
1. CD4 T cells (primarily)
2. Macrophages
3. Dendritic cells
Why do frequent mutations occur during the replication of HIV?
RT lacks proofreading capability
How is HIV subdivided?
Into clades A through I
(Clade B is most common in North America. Clade C is the most prevalent and is rapidly expanding worldwide)
What are the 3 stages of HIV disease?
1. Acute
2. Clinical latency
3. Immunodeficiency stage
What is the acute stage of HIV characterized by?
1. Fever
2. Lethargy
3. Sore throat
4. Generalized lymphadenopathy
How long is the acute stage of HIV?
two weeks
Where does replication primarily occur during the latent stage of an HIV infection?
Lymph nodes
What does the AIDS-related complex (ARC) involve?
1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Weightloss
4. Lymphadenopathy
The immunodeficiency stage of HIV involves a decline in CD4 cells to below ______/mm^3.
<300
During which stage of the HIV infection will an increase in frequency and severity of cancers and opportunistic infections occur?
Immunodeficiency stage
What are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV patients?
1. Pneumocystis jirovecii
2. Kaposi's sarcoma
List 4 lab test that can be done to diagnose HIV.
1. ELISA or P.O.C serology
2. CD4 T cells
3. Western blot
4. PCR
What is the only test which can provide a definitive result during the first month after HIV infection, since Ab tests are frequently negative?
PCR
Which lab test measures the viral load in an HIV infected patient?
PCR
What is the principal prognostic indicator of HIV?
Viral load
What sort of treatment can be used for postexposure prophylaxis against HIV?
Immediate administration of HAART is highly effective
What sort of treatment can prevent perinatal HIV infection?
AZT or nevirapine
What physical characteristic is a diagnostic indicator of HTLV in a leukemia patient?
Flower cells