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145 Cards in this Set

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Form characterized by a return to the theme after each refrain, e.g. ABACABA (7-part).
Nonharmonic Tones
* Anticipation - Chord-tone played before chord sounds.
* Neighbor Tone - Note moves step-wise and resolves to same note.
* Escape Tone - Moves step-wise then resolves by a skip in the opposite direction
* Passing Tone - Moves step-wise and resolves by moving step-wise in same direction
* Suspension - Chord shifts before one note, which resolves downward on a later beat.
* Retardation - Similar to a suspension, but resolves upward.
* Appoggiatura - Moves by skip, then resolves in opposite direction by step.
* Portamento - The inside part of an olive. Also a type of anticipation, came to be treated as glissando.
* Nota Cambiata - Four note figure with step, skip in same direction, step in opposite direction.
The "Berlin Bach." Wrote over 1,000 pieces and, like his father, continued to revise works throughout his life. Most significant contributions were in keyboard music. Wrote "Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments," which became the most significant tutor on keyboard playing for years to come.
C.P.E. Bach
The "English Bach." Learned piano from his brother, CPE. Among the first composers to write piano concertos. Wrote significant symphonic works which would heavily influence both Mozart and Beethoven.
Johann Christian Bach
Once competed against Handel in keyboard playing, Handel was the better organist while he was the better harpsichordist. Wrote over 550 single-movement sonatas and developed numerous technical advances in keyboard playing, such as rapid repetitions, crossed hands, double‐note passages, etc.
Domenico Scarlatti
English composer, born in Italy. Famous for his contributions to piano literature, including numerous sonatas which Beethoven admired greatly. Also built pianos and wrote Gradus ad Parnassum (Steps to Parnassus), piano studies of increasing difficulty.
Muzio Clementi
A prolific composer, particularly of chamber music, with a distinctive and highly wrought style, he is the chief representative of Latin instrumental music during the Viennese Classical period. Also a noted cellist.
Luigi Boccherini
Though formerly best known for some of his anthems and his editing of Cathedral Music (1760–73), the significant contribution he made to instrumental music, song, secular choral and theatre music in England is now widely recognized.
William Boyce
One of the first symphonic composers. Composed over 70 symphonies, mainly three movements. Music marked by three styles, the first a Baroque-Classical, the second is early Classical, and the final points to later Classical developments.
Giovanni Battista Sammartini
Founder of the Mannheim School while employed by the Elector Palatine whose capital was in Mannheim. First symphonic composer to use what would become standard plan: four movements with minuet and trio as third, The Mannheim orchestra employed the greatest musicians of the day (Army of Generals). Developed the Mannheim crescendo, an increase in volume followed by a decrease, and the Mannheim Rocket, a rising triadic them in equal note values.
Johann Stamitz
Leading figure in the rise of the Italian comic opera in the 18th century. Most of his fame was posthumous. He was the only of 7 sons to survive infancy, but was in poor health throughout his life. Most famous for La serva padrona, an intermezzo in the Italian comic opera style.
Giovanni Pergolesi
Extremely successful in reforming opera and transferring the reforms people wanted into stage works. Wanted music to serve the poetry and advance the plot. Worked in numerous operatic styles, all to great success. One of the most important figures in opera during the Classical period. Wrote "Orfeo ed Euridice" and "Alceste."
Christoph Willibald Gluck
Born in Salzburg, but spent most of his career in Vienna. A prodigy from birth, composing his first works at the age of 3 and traveling through Europe as a child to perform for nobility. Son of Leopold, one of the most important violin teachers in history.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Papa Haydn. Considered the "Father of the Symphony." Served in the Esterhazy court for most of his life. Good friend of Mozart and knew Beethoven, as well. Became extremely wealthy. Visited London near the end of his life and wrote four symphonies while there. Wrote music in every genre of the time. Had a wicked sense of humor, too.
Joseph Haydn
Possibly met Mozart in Vienna in 1787, moved there permanently in 1792. Studied counterpoint with Haydn. Had three distinct periods. Early is very Classical sounding. Second displays expansion of the forms and other innovations (3rd symphony). Final stage marked by decrease in output and increase in complexity and intensity.
Ludwig van Beethoven
City in Germany situated at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar rivers. Became one of two centers of musical activity during Stamitz's time hiring the greatest musicians of the age for the orchestra. Home of sturm und drang. Orchestra assembled by the Elector Palatine.
City in Austria that was the second (Mannheim being the first) center of musical activity during the Classical period. Main composers of the style were Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
In visual arts term is applied to the delicate, diverting style of Watteau and his contemporaries. Musical application refers to the decorative style, e.g. of F. Couperin , and of certain works by Rameau and J.C. Bach. Musically it is a vague term, almost synonymous with galant and referring to works which are no longer baroque and not yet classical.
Empfindsamer Stil
An aesthetic movement in music which stressed the importance of a personal, emotional response. German for "sentimental style." Espoused the idea that the highest aim of music was to touch the heart and move the affections. Empfinsamkeit.
Sturm und Drang
Storm and stress. Named after a literary movement, it was the movement founded in Mannheim which belied the aesthetic sensibilities of the Enlightenment and focused on dynamic power and high emotions.
A term used to denote a piece of music usually but not necessarily consisting of several movements, almost invariably instrumental and designed to be performed by a soloist or a small ensemble.
Sing speak. An opera which contains spoken dialogue. Usually a comic German opera. Mozart's Die Zauberflöte is an example.
Opera Buffa
Italian comic opera which rose in popularity in the 18th century in Italy and abroad. Sung throughout and plots centered on ordinary people in the present day. Arias were typically of the galant style.
Opera Comique
French comic opera. A term referring to stage productions incorporating singing, orchestral music, and sometimes spoken word. Dealt with lighter material than Tragedie mise en musique of the opera.
Ballad Opera
English popular opera style in the early Classical period. Opera with spoken dialogue using popular tunes of the day but with new words. The Beggar's Opera was the prime example of it, satirizing London society.
Derived from Greek words meaning "together sounding." An extended work for orchestra, it became the chief vehicle of orchestral music in the 18th century. Derived from Italian sinfonia, or opera overture.
String Quartet
A composition for four string instruments, considered the supreme form of chamber music. Two violins, viola, and cello.
Orchestra and Development
Pre-Classic - No real formal organization of ensembles.
Classic - Orchestra became more formalized as the ensemble Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven wrote for. Was fairly clearly defined.
Romantic - Size and composition of orchestra grew depending upon the composer and the needs of the music.
Modern - Orchestras generally maintained composition and performance practices of Romantic period.
Sonata Form
The most important musical form of the Classical period. Exposition, development, recapitulation. Also known as "first movement" form because it is usually the form of the first movement of most composite forms of the period. Early sonata form best represented in Koch's "Introductory Essay on Composition."
Sonata Cycle
Layout of a multi-movement piece where the movements are recognizable as the forms of the classical music tradition, headed by the sonata-allegro form.
Minuet and Trio
Typically the third movement of a symphony, first regularly employed by Stamitz. It is in 3/4 time and rouded binary form. The B section is referred to as the Trio because it was traditionally performed by three instruments, although it outgrew that constraint.
Ternary Form
A three part musical form (tripartite), generally in ABA (rounded binary) form.
Binary Form
A two part musical form. Usually AB, but can also be AA'.
Theme and Variations
A form in which a main theme is repeated, but changed in some way with each iteration.
Musical form characterized by main theme, called a refrain, followed by contrasting sections, episodes, each followed by a return to the refrain.
Sonata rondo
A sort of hybrid variation of the Rondo form where the form is ABA-Development-Recapitulation.
A fast, lively movement which takes the place of a Minuet in a four movement piece, but typically in Minuet and Trio form. Before Beethoven's time, it could refer to any number of different types of lively piece or movement.
French composer. Composed Symphonie Fantastique, a five-movement symphony. Developed idea of idee fixe. Originally sent to medical school. Won the Prix de Rome in 1830.
Hector Berlioz
Lived a short, but very prolific, life. Very important developments in chamber music. "Trout" piano quintet added a theme and variations movement.
Franz Schubert
Important composer of symphonic overtures. Visited England ten times and wrote 5 symphonies (although not published in the same order as written). Also largely responsible for the renewal of interest in J.S. Bach.
Felix Mendelssohn
Hungarian composer and pianist. The most important pianist of his generation. Responsible for the solo piano recital. Took all the orders of priesthood after his midlife crisis except for celibacy.
Franz Liszt
Wrote approximately 100 lieder in 1840 after getting married. Dropped out of law school. Made the "song cycle" famous. His short pieces became known as "character pieces." Also a music critic and founded the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik.
Robert Schumann
Son of an amateur musician who played in dance halls. He also earned money playing in restaurants. Met Joachim and the Schumanns in 1853, who supported his career. Fell in love with Clara.
Johannes Brahms
An organ virtuoso and a devout Catholic, he tried to unite the Wagnerian ethos and a reverent, liturgical approach to the sacred texts. Wrote 9 numbered symphonies and 2 unnumbered ones. Utilized Beethoven's 9th symphony as the model for procedure.
Anton Bruckner
A Polish composer who eventually settled in Paris, he was mostly identified with the piano. Never married, but had a nine year affair with novelist George Sand. Earned significant sums of money teaching piano, publishing, and giving rare public concerts.
Frederic Chopin
Irish pianist-composer who invented the Nocturne, later inspiring Chopin's use of the genre.
John Field
Czech composer who used elements of Czech music to achieve a national idiom. Composed 9 symphonies, the last of which was his best-known. Served as artistic director of the National Conservatory of Music in the U.S.
Antonin Dvorak
Most prominent Russian composer of the nineteenth century. Was a lawyer for four years before enrolling in St. Petersburg Conservatory and studying with Anton Rubinstein. Suffered from severe depression and conflicts with his homosexuality.
Peter Tchaikovsky
Italian-born composer famous for writing some of the most popular operas of the nineteenth century. Retired a wealthy man at 39 years-old and spent the next 40 years entertaining in luxury.
Gioacchino Rossini
One of the more prolific composers of the second quarter of the nineteenth century composing oratorios, cantatas, chamber and church music, songs, symphonies, and 70 operas. One of his most famous was Lucia de Lamermoor.
Gaetano Donizetti
A contemporary of Rossini who came to prominence after Rossini retired from composition, known for long, sweeping, highly embellished, intensely emotional melodies. Composed ten serious operas, including La Sonnambula, Norma, and I Puritani.
Vincenzo Bellini
Began his career as an organist, but later became famous for writing operas. Among his more famous were Rigoletto, Il trovatore, and La traviata.
Giuseppe Verdi
Established the paradigm for German Romantic opera with Die Freischütz, which had strong nationalist sentiment. Associated motives and keys with certain characters or events. Utilized tritone-based and third-based harmonies.
Carl Maria von Weber
The most important link in German opera between Weber and Wagner. Incorporated supernatural elements in his operas, such as Hans Heilig, Der Vampyr, and Der Templer und die Jüdin
Heinrich Marschner
One of the most influential musicians of all time, despite the fact that he composed almost exclusively vocal music, most notably operas. A controversial figure who published extensively on his political views and musical ideas, including Gesamtkunstwerk.
Richard Wagner
German opera composer who had a profound influence on many composers, including Wagner. Leader of the Grand Opera. Wrote several operas on Eugene Scribe librettos, including Les Huguenots.
Giacomo Meyerbeer
French composer who composed the most famous lyric opera, Faust. Composed several other lyric operas in addition to symphonic music.
Charles Gounod
Belgian composer who came to Paris and worked mainly in instrumental genres. His Prelude, Chorale, and Fugue emulated a Baroque toccata in the prelude and was typical of his style. Considered the founder of modern French chamber music.
Caesar Franck
Spanish opera composer who explored concepts of exoticism. Most famous opera was Carmen, which was set in Spain, still considered exotic in most of Europe. The plot provoked outrage, but still won success.
Georges Bizet
A melody or motive used to characterize an idea or obsession. Translated as fixed idea.
Idee fixe
Berlioz composed an important example of this vocal form employing an orchestra of 140 players, as well as four brass choirs and lots of percussions.
A method of providing unity, variety, and narrative-like logic to transform thematic material to reflect the diverse moods needed to portray a programmatic subject.
Thematic Transformation
A multi-movement form which utilizes some common themes or ideas to unify the piece.
Cyclic Form
Choral form which provided inspiration for Romantic era composers, such as Brahms.
Liszt composed two of these, St. Elisabeth and Christus, offering an accommodation between the past and present.
Single movement orchestral programmatic piece with sections of contrasting character. Made famous by Liszt and Strauss.
Tone poen (symphonic poem)
German word for song. Increased in popularity during the Romantic period, becoming an incredibly significant form during the period. Schubert and the Schumanns were significant in this genre.
A group of songs performed in succession that tell or suggest a story.
Song cycle
Fantastic opera
Romantic opera designed to appeal to newly well-to-do middle-class audiences. Focused on entertainment and excitement. Leaders were Meyerbeer and Berlioz.
Grand opera
Cousin to Grand opera which used spoken dialogue instead of recitative. Less pretentious and utilizing fewer singers than grand opera.
Opera comique
French opera style generally based on romantic drama or fantasy. Lies somewhere between grand opera and opera comique.
Opera lyrique
A term associated with Wagner (although he rejected the term) reflecting the oneness of drama and music.
Music drama
A musical theme or motive associated with a particular character, utilized by Wagner.
The total art work. A phrase coined by Wagner intended to reflect the art of the future, melding poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music.
A development in the German Lied expanding it in both form and in emotional content. Piano also rose in prominence in this lied form.
Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Musorgsky, and Rinsky-Korsakov. Influential Russian composers of the late Romantic period, cultivated the Russian nationalist style.
The Mighty Handful
Society founded in 1871 which gave concerts of works by French composers and sought to revive the great French music of the past.
Societe nationale de musique francaise
An operatic method parallel to realism in literature, presenting everyday people in familiar situations.
An artistic movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries focusing more on the artist's impressions of events, rather than a realistic representation of those events. Main composer of the movement was Debussy (although he thought of himself more as a symbolist).
Leading Austro-German Romantic symphonic composer after Brahms and Bruckner, and leader of song for voice and orchestra. Responsible for expanding symphonic form and utilizing much larger ensembles.
Gustav Mahler
Prominent German composer who enjoyed great financial success, due in large part to his long life. Especially noted for his tone poems, drew on literature.
Richard Strauss
One of the Wagnerians, best known for adapting Wagner's methods to the German lied. Utilized extreme chromaticism, which would later become known as chromatic saturation.
Hugo Wolf
One of the first Russian composers to achieve Russian and international recognition. Known for operas A Life for the Tsar and Ruslan and Lyudmila.
Michael Glinka
Generally considered the most original of the Mighty Five. Most popular of his musical plays is Boris Godunov. Harmony is essentially tonal, he employed "block construction," large blocks of material.
Modest Mussorgsky
In addition to being a great composer and member of the Mighty Five, also wrote the harmony text most frequently used in Russia and a manual on orchestration.
Nicolas Rimsky-Kosakov
He began by writing piano music in the style of Chopin, but gradually developed chromaticism, octatonic scale, and other such exotic ideas.
Alexander Scriabin
One of the great Czech composers, developed a strongly nationalistic style characterized by use of folk songs. Also served as director of Czech opera.
Bedrich Smetana
Leading Czech composer of the twentieth century, collected folk music of his native region of Moravia. Also wrote a large number of operas which dominated the Czech stage in the last decade of his life.
Leos Janacek
Norwegian composer who embraced the idea of Nationalism, but not all of his works were nationalist. His piano concerto was modeled on Schumann's piano concerto in the same key.
Edvard Grieg
One of the first significant American composers. Trained in music, he made his fame as an insurance agent, but returned to composition after his marriage.
Charles Ives
A highly nationalistic Finnish composer who was also a pioneer in his treatment of form employing such techniques as rotational form and teleological genesis.
Jean Sibelius
Romantic composer who was the first significant English composer in nearly two centuries. Did not use English folk songs, but employed harmony styles of Brahms and Wagner, also employing leitmotives. Composed the Enigma Variations and two symphonies.
Edward Elgar
Principal Spanish composer of the 20th century, collected national folk songs and combining nationalism with a modern style.
Manuel de Falla
French Romantic composer who was noted for his refined melodic style in the style of Gounod.
Gabriel Faure
Avant-garde French composer who wittily upended conventional ideas and challenged Romantic notions of expressivity and individuality. Often wrote tongue-in-cheek instructions in the music. Significant inspiration for John Cage.
Erik Satie
Extremely influential French composer. Usually considered an Impressionist, but more a symbolist due to his connections with symbolist poets. Created musical images through motives, harmonies, exotic scales, instrumental timbre, and other devices.
Claude Debussy
French Impressionist composer who assimilated many different styles, in addition to French art and popular traditions. Occasionally utilized French idioms, such as in Bolero. Pavane pour une infante defunte and his ballet Daphnis et Chloe were among his more famous works.
Maurice Ravel
Most successful Italian opera composer after Verdi, blending Verdi's focus on vocal melody with elements of Wagner's style. Composed La Boheme, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly.
Giacomo Puccini
Musical genre following artistic movement of the same name representing subjects in grossly distorted ways. Schonberg and Berg were leaders in the style.
A stage initiated by Stravinsky characterized by a revival of styles, genres, and forms of pre-Romantic music.
An evolution of twelve-tone music which utilized those principals in areas other than just pitch, e.g. rhythm or series of notes other than twelve.
Music that fails to establish a tonal center.
Technique often utilized by Charles Ives in which different voices playing simultaneously were in different keys.
Another name for twelve-tone music.
The technique of free use of all seven degrees of the diatonic scale, melodically, harmonically, or contrapuntally.
A deliberate representation of the elemental, crude, and uncultured. Rite of Spring is one example.
Term coined by Paul Hindemith meaning "music for use," distinguished by music for its own sake.
The technique of the voice declaiming the text approximating the written pitches while following the notated rhythm exactly.
Schonberg's concept of tone-color melody in which changes of tone color are perceived as parallel to changes in pitch in a melody.
Continuous variation
Regained prominence in the 20th century through the ballets of Stravinsky, which employed primitivism and was very controversial.
Working with recorded sounds and manipulating those sounds through mechanical and electronic means, assembling them into collages. Developed by Pierre Schaeffer.
Musique concrete
The general term encompassing any electronic reproduction of music, such as musique concrete, electronic sound, synthesizers, and pre-recorded music. Stockhausen and Harry Partch.
Electronic music
The principal, established by John Cage, by which the decisions of the performer replaces a decision of the composer.
Musical movement in which composers reduced the amount of material and the pace of change to a minimum and invited listeners to focus on the small changes that do occur.
The school generally associated with serial music and including composers such as Nono, Maderna, Stockhausen and Boulez.
Darmstadt School
Hungarian composer who was a noted pianist and one of the early ethnomusicologists. Music drew on folk music of Hungary, Romania, and nearby lands. Among major works include Bluebeard's Castle and Mikrokosmos.
Bela Bartok
One of few German composers to gain prominence during the Nazi era. Best known work was Carmina Burana, setting medieval poems akin to goliard songs. Developed methods for teaching music in schools.
Carl Orff
English composer who composed both art music and utilitarian music, including 9 symphonies and several pieces for wind ensemble.
Ralph Vaughn Williams
English composer who was influenced not only by English song but also by Hindu sacred texts.
Gustav Holst
20th century English composer whose music was deeply influenced by humanitarian concerns and ideals of public service. A homosexual whose life partner was tenor Peter Pears. Composed Peter Grimes, the first English opera since Purcell.
Benjamin Britten
American composer who went from composing dissonant music to a more streamlined style. Composed music intended to for mass consumption, writing music in a language broad masses of people could understand, utilizing counterpoint, dissonance, and juxtaposition.
Aaron Copland
Italian-born American composer who studied in Milan and at Curtis. Founded the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto. Wrote the librettos of all his operas, plus Barber's "Vanessa."
Gian-Carlo Menotti
Neoclassicist and member of Les Six, he incorporated diverse styles into his music, including Brazilian music and jazz. Composed The Creation of the World, The Ox on the Roof, Souvenirs of Brazil, Sacred Service
Darius Milhaud
Neoclassicist and member of Les Six, composed King David and Pacific 231. Utilized dynamic action, graphic gesture, short-breathed melodies, strong ostinato rhythms, bold colors, and dissonant harmonies. Incorporated Gregorian chant, Baroque polyphony, and jazz in his music.
Arthur Honegger
Neoclassicist and member of Les Six who drew on the Parisian popular chanson tradition sustained in cabarets and reviews. Composed Dialogues of the Carmelites, The Breasts of Tiresias, and Postoral Concerto for harpsichord and small orchestra.
Francis Poulenc
Among the most prolific composers of the 20th century, had three distinct periods: late romantic, expressionist, the Gebrauchsmusik. Nazis hated him and forbade performance of his music.
Paul Hindemith
Most important French composer of the 20th century. A devout Catholic who composed many pieces on religious subjects, such as Quatour pour la fin du temps (quartet for the end of time). Incorporated birdcalls in his compositions. Composed music as something of a musical mantra, or for contemplative meditation.
Olivier Messiaen
Russian composer who participated in most significant trends in music during his lifetime. Employed primitivism early in compositional career. Also a neoclassicist. Composed Symphony of Psalms. Also composed on neotonal and serial styles.
Igor Stravinsky
Father of atonal and twelve-tone music. Taught Berg and Webern. Ultimately died on July 13 having always feared the number 13.
Arnold Schoenberg
Student of Schoenberg who also composed the expressionist opera Wozzeck. Also compsosed Violin Concerto in twelve-tone style.
Alban Berg
Student of Schoenberg who had an evolutionist concept of music history, seeing twelve-tone as a discovery, not an invention. The lesser known of the three twelve-tone giants, his major composition was his Symphony, op. 21.
Anton Webern
Soviet composer whose opera, Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, was sharply criticized as too dissonant. Wrote his 5th Symphony as a response to that criticism. Third movement of 10th Symphony used a motive drawn from the German spelling of his name.
Dmitri Shostakovich
Russian composer who fled after the Revolution and toured North America and western Europe. Eventually returned to the Soviet Union where he composed film scores for Lieutenant Kije and Romeo and Juliet, as well as Peter and the Wolf.
Sergei Prokofiev
French composer who considered music "organized sound", imagining music as spatial in which "sound masses" moved through musical space. Among major works was Hyperprism. Lots of one-name compositions. Also, Poeme electronique.
Edgard Varese
Composer who used a lot of electronic and prerecorded sound in his compositions. Gesang der Junglinge was one which used both, one track being a boy's voice.
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Pointillist composer whose most famous piece was Le marteu sans maitre (Hammer without a Master). Also a prominent conducter.
Pierre Boulez
Serial composer who applied serial principles to duration. Made his music as complex as possible to make it "literally as much as possible."
Milton Babbitt
A pioneer in 20th century musical ideas, he wrote in the avant-garde style. Prepared piano, in which various objects were inserted between the strings, also explored chance and indeterminacy. Significant pieces included 4'33". Utilized graphic notation and ambient sound.
John Cage
Known for coaxing interesting sounds out of instruments and objects. Composed Ancient Voices of Children and Black Angels.
George Crumb
Hungarian composer most famous for composing music to 2001, drawn from his earlier pieces Atmospheres, Requiem, and Luz aeterna. Utilized what he called "micropolyphony," canons with different lines moving at different rates to create the effect of a mass of sound slowly moving through space.
Gyorgy Ligeti
Italian composer most noted for his Sequenza, which emphasized the New Virtuosity, a generation of technically proficient performers capable of playing serial and other modern music.
Luciano Berio
American composer who wrote in a highly technical non-serial style. Developed metric modulation, in which there is a transition from one tempo and meter to another through an intermediary stage that shares aspects of both. Typical composition of this is String Quartet No. 2.
Elliot Carter
Greek composer who utilized the concept of music as spatial. Metastaseis is a piece where each string player in the orchestra has a unique part to play, and glissandos can be plotted as straight lines on a graph that add up to create an effect of curves in musical space.
Iannis Xenakis