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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the main function of the basal ganglia?
Initiating and terminating movement
What is the main NT of the BG?
What is the main NT of the cerebellum?
What is the transition zone between the brainstem and the cortex?
Basal Ganglia
Where do the caudate and the putamen come together?
Nucleus accumbens
What phenomenon does the nucleus accumbens have to do with?
What structures comprise the BG?
1. Caudate
2. Putamen
3. Globis pallidus
4. STN
5. Substantia nigra
What does the putamen receive input from? Where does it project?
1. Motor and Somatosensory Cortex
2. M1, M2 and premotor areas
What type of function is the putamen involved with in regards to the BG?
Motor Function
What does the caudate receive input from? Where does it project?
1. Association cortex
2. Prefrontal cortex
What type of function is the caudate involved with in regards to the BG?
Cognitive function
What are the three input nuclei of the BG?
1. Caudate
2. Putamen
3. Nucleus accumbens
Where do the glutaminergic inputs to the caudate come from?
Association cortex
Where do the glutaminergic inputs to the putamen come from?
Primary motor and sensory corticies
Where do the dopaminergic inputs to the striatum come from?
What type of inputs(NT) are sent to the caudate, putamen and striatum?
1. Gluatminergic
2. Gluatminergic
3. Dopaminergic
What are the processing nuclei of the BG(4)?
1. GPe
2. SNpc
3. Subthalamic nucleus
4. Ventral tegmental area
What are the output nuclei of the BG(3)?
1. GPi
2. SNpr
3. Ventral pallidum
What do the GPi and SNpr output to(2)? What are the two paths they can take to get there?
1. VA & VL
2. Ansa lenticularis (digs a tunnel underneath) & lenticular fasciculus (runs across)
What part of the SN produces dopamine?
Pars compacta
What part of the SN is non-dopaminergic and what does it function like?
1. Pars reticulata
2. GPi (Both output nuclei)
The direct BG pathway has been paired with what?
The direct pathway releases or enables behavior to occur by releasing the thalamus from tonic inhibition from the inner segment of the globus pallidus
The indirect BG pathway has been paired with what?
This circuit decreases the probability of unwanted behaviors being released and more generally inhibits the release of any behavior.
How does the indirect pathway work?
Corticostriatal input excites cells of the neostriatum. Activity of the striatal GABAergic neurons projecting to GPe increases. Activity in the tonically active GPe decreases, decreasing the amount of inhibition on the subthalamus. This increases the activity of the glutaminergic neurons of the subthalamus, resulting in excitation of both segments of the globus pallidus. This increase in activity increases the inhibitory outflow from GPi to the thalamus, suppressing thalamic output, decreasing behaviors.
How does the direct pathway work?
Corticostriatal input excites cells of the neostriatum. Activity of the GABAergic neurons projecting to the GPi increases. Activity in the tonically active GPi decreases, causing the disinhibition (inhibiting the inhibitor) of neurons in thalamic nuclei (specifically VA, VL, and CM). These thalamic nuclei then project back to specific areas of cortex, premotor areas 6 and 5. Such a scheme reinforces activity originating in cortex by running through a loop. In addition, it decreases the probability of other unwanted behaviors via lateral inhibition in the neostriatum. Topographical excitation of striatal elements inhibits neighbor elements via axon collaterals of the striatum making inhibitory contacts on its neighbors. Finally, direct projections from the neostriatum to the SNr disinhibit structures normally inhibited by the SNr (e.g., VA and VL of thalamus, the superior colliculus).
Which pathway is totally GABAnergic?
Direct pathway
Which pathway involves glutaminergic neurons?
Indirect pathway
What are the three modulators of the striatum?
1. Dopamine
2. Serotonin
3. Norepinephrine
What determines whether your response is excitatory or inhibitory in the BG?
The receptor, not the NT
What dopamine receptors are inhibitory and excitatory in the striatum?
1. D1 - excitatory
2. D2 - inhibitory
What are continuous rapid movements associated with Huntington's disease?
What is typically the cause of chorea?
Problems associated with the caudate
Are chorea movements hyperactive or hypoactive movements?
What are twisting movements that are associated with chorea? Where is the problem when associated with chorea? Without chorea?
1. Athetosis
2. Striatum with chorea
3. Globis pallidus without chorea
What are flinging movements called? What is destroyed with this condition? What usually causes this?
1. Ballismus
2. One side of the STN
3. PCA stroke
What causes Parkinson's?
Lesion of the SNpc or projection
What causes Huntington's?
Lesion of the striatal projections
In hemiballismus, what is destroyed? What effect does this have on the thalamus?
1. STN
2. Since the STN causes the GPi to inhibit the thalamus, the thalamus is now disinhibited.
What happens in Parkinson's disease?
The output of the GPi is too much causing too much inhibition of the thalamus.
Is rigidity velocity dependent or velocity independent? What is it a malfunction of?
1. Velocity independent
2. Basal ganglia
Is spasticity velocity dependent or velocity independent? What is it a malfunction of?
1. Velocity dependent
2. Upper motor neurons
Describe the deep tendon reflex pathway.
1. Stretch of the tendon causes a signal in the muscle spindle
2. Muscle spindle sends a signal to the spinal cord
3. After a monosynaptic exchange to an alpha neuron the muscle fires
What happens with an upper motor neuron lesion in terms of relexes? Why?
The reflexes are hyperactive because the gamma neuron is disinhibited causing the muscle spindle to set the muscle tone too taut.
What is considered the rostral part of the sympathetic nervous system?
Zona inserta
The Fields of Forel have to go around what? What two fasciculi are they divided into? What do they become?
1. Zona inserta
2. H1 - Thalamic & H2 - Lenticular
3. H
What makes up the H Fasciculus?
H1, H2 and ansa lenticularis
People with dystonia need stimulation where? People with Parkinson's?
1. GPi
2. Vim