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175 Cards in this Set

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account for 3-8 % of whiteblood cells and are the largest leukocytes. have abundant plaeblue cytoplasma dn a darkly staining purple nucleus, which is U shaped. Develop into macrophages(with prodiguous appetties) when they enter the tissues. They are crucial in bodys defense aganist viruses, bacterial parasites and chronic infections. phagocytize cells and form antibodies in immune reponse
account for 25% of teh WBC population. Most lymphocytes are located in the lymphoid organs where they play a crucial role in immunity. when stained, a typical lymphocytes has al rge, dark purple ucleus that occupies most of the cell volume. spherical and may be indented, thin rim of cytoplasma.
Thrombocytes/ Platelets
disc like fragments that are important in blood clotting. When blood vessels injured PLATELETS help seal the break. Main goal is to prevent the loss of blood. If blood vessel breaks, series of reactions i set in motion to accomplish HEMOSTASIS or the stoppage of blood. During hemostasis, three phases occr in rapid sequence VASCULAR SPASMS, PLATELET PLUG FORMATION AND COAGULTOIN/BLOOD CLOTTING
Vascular Spasm
immediate response to blood vessel injury by constricting damanged blood vessels (vascoconstriction). Spasm mechanism becomes more and more efficient as teh amount of tissue damage increase, and is most effective in teh smaller blood vessels
Platlet plug formation
Second phase of hemostasis...form a plug, begin to break down and release chemical. Activity and the realease of serotonin enhance the vascular spasms and attract more platelets to area. Takes about one minute to form pletlet plug
Coagulation or bLood clotting
blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel involves many substances. This multi step process leads to the important last three phases...PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR , PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR coverts a plasma protien called PROTHROMBIN TO THROMBIN which is an enzyme. Then THROMBIN catalyzes joining FIBRINOGEN molecules in plasma to a FIBRIN MESH, which traps blood cells and seals holes
Transfusion and replacement of blood
reducing the volume of affected blood vessel and increasing the production of red blood cells. Body can only compensate for only so much blood loss, so transfusion may be needed
Whole Blood transfusion
blood from another person or self
Packed red cells
whole blood from which most of the plasma has been removed. Type of transfusion is preferred to treat anemia
ABO blood types
bases on presence or absense of two aggultinogens, type A and type B. depending on which of these a person inherits, his or her ABO BLOOD TYPE will be one of the follow, A. B. AB. O. The O blood group, neither aggultinogens, most prevelant and AB, is least prevelant. Blood type O considered universal donor and blood type AB is considered universal recepient.
preformed antibodies that act aganist red blood cells carrying ABO antigens that are not present on a person own blood cell
there are at least 8 different type of Rh aggultinogens, each of which is called Rh factor. Most americans (85%) are Rh +, meaning that their red blood cells carry Rh antigens
prevents the formation of blood clots. certain citrate or oxalate salts can act as an anticoagulants. can be used in storing blood up to 35 days
anticoagulant used with tranfusion of fresh blood
blood test
can yield information that can be used to evaluate a persons current state of health. For example, a pale blood color or low hemotocrit may indicate anemia. Yellowish= high fat content. Testing blood glucose is extrememly important for diabetes. Excessive number of leukocytes may indicate infections
differntial white blood cell count
valuable disgnostic tool for determining the relative proportion of indivudial lekocyte types. High eosinophils may indicate a parasitic infection
complete blood count
routinly ordered during physical exams and before entering hospital. includes counts for the different types of formed elements, a hemotocrit, and test for clotting factors
four chambered musclular organ that weight 255 g in females and 310 in males. Makes up 1/200th of the body weight and 1/20th of teh blood supply. contracts about 40,000,000 times per year and ejects about 700,000 gallons of blood per year.
medial cavity of the throax and encloses all the area between the lungs or just the area that contains the heart.
double walled sac taht encloses the heart. wall of heart has three layers all richly supplies with blood vessesl...EPICARDIUM, MYOCARDIUM, AND ENDOCARDIUM
most superficial layer...functions include providing a lubricating outer covering, protecting the heart, anchoring the heart and prevents over filling of the heart
middle layer that is composed mostly of cardiac muscle and fomrs the bulk of the heart. Layer that has muscular contractions that eject blood from the hearat chambers. Part of the heart that we see
inner layer of heart. Lubricates the inner lining of the chambers and valves
Pathway of blood through the heart
two different circuits: PULMONARY CIRCUIT- contains the blood vessesls that carry blood to and from teh lungs...SYSTEMATIC CIRCUIT- contains teh blood vessels that carry the blood supply to and from all body tissues. Right side of heart is PULMONAYR CIRCUIT PUMP and left side of heart is the SYSTEMATIC CIRCUIT PUMP
Heart sounds
often described as a lub-dup sounds, are produced by teh opening and closing of heart valves
heart murmurs
abnormal heart sounds caused by valvular leakage of turbulence blood
valvar insufficiency
when the cusps of valves do not form a tight seal
when walls around teh valve are roughened or constricted
functional murmurs
frequent in children and caused by turbulent movement of blood thrugh the heart during exercise. Parts of the heart grow faster that other pars, but msot of the time correct themselves
cardiac muscle
similar to skeletal muscle because it is striated and contracs by sliding filament mechanism. has actin and myosin filaments, z dics, a bands, and i bands. has 1-2 nuclei per cell where skeletal muscle is multinucleated. cardiac cells are short, fat, branched and interconnected. no triads in cardiac muscle
Intercalated discs
junctions of plasma membrane and of adjacant cardiac cells. contain anchoring DESMOSOMES and GAP JUNCTION.
prevent seperation of adjacent cardiac cells
gap junction
allows ions to pass freely from cell to cell, allows transmission of depoarizing current accross the entire heart
cardiac output
amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute
stroke volume
volume of blood pumped out by one ventricle with each heart
cardiac output= HR (stroke volume)
72 BPM x 70 min/beat= 5.25 L/min
cardiac reserve
difference between resting and maximal cardiac output
Heart rate
number of beats per minute. fastest in a fetus at 140-160 BPM. average heart rate decreaes with age. average heart rate for female is 72-80 and males is 64-72. Trained athletes may be as slow as 40-60
autonomic nervous system
most important extrinsic controls affecting the heart rate. symphatic NS can be activated by fright, anxiety or excitement
chemical regulation
involves chemicals normally present in teh blood and other fluids. includes hormones, ions and other factors
involved in regulating heart rate
increases herat rate and contractibility
increaes metabolic rate and heat production in the body
similar in apperance to epinephrine...when anxiety releases noreinephrine to epinephrine
play a role in heart rate regulation because physiological relationships between intracellular and extracellular ions must be maintianed for normal heart functions
reduced levels of calcium in teh blood causes reduced heart rate
eleveated levels of calcium in blood. Drastically increases heart irritibiltiy, interferes with contractions and may lead to spastic contractions
excess of sodium and may block contractions
too much potassium an dmay lead to cardiac arrest
OTHER factors
age, gender, excerse and body temp affect heart rate
blood vessels
dynamic structures that pulsate, constrict and relax. our body represents a closed delivery system. three types: ARTERIES, VEINS, CAPILLARIES
Carry blood from heart
carry blood to the heart
have contact with teh cells of body
except for the tinnest, all blood vessels have three layers around a lumen which is a passageway
tunica interna
innermost layer of the blood vessel. contains endothelium lining the lumen that minimizes friction which helps prevent erosion
tunica media
middle layer. mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and elastin. VASOCONSTRICTION= decrease in diameter in lumens...VASODILATION= increase in diameter of lumen
tunica externa
outermost layer that protects, reinforces and anchors
blood flow
voluem of blood through a vessesl, organ, or body in a given period. blood flow equals cardiac output
blood pressure
greates in arteries and is created by action of the heart. force exerted by blood aganist vascular walls and is measured in mm of mercury. helpful because it keep blood moving
opposition to flow, amount of friction in vessesl
peripheral resistance
refers to most resistance that is away from the heart in peripheral circulation
sources of resistance
viscocity of the blood (thicker the blood more resistance), total length of blood vessesl (longer the BV, more resistance), diameter of BV (smaller the diameters more resistance)
device used to measure arterial pressure. used to chekc the brachial artery. normal pressure (systolic/diastolic prssure) of adults is `120/80
systolic pressure
produced as blood is ejected from the heat during ventricuar contractiom
ventricles relax during ventriclar relaxation
pulse pressure
difference between systolic and diastolic pressure and usually about 40 mmHg
blood pressuer
affected by general health of teh cardiovascular system
blood pressure of 140/90 or greaters. increase strain on the herat and BV. common in obsese people because the totl length of BV is greater than in thinner people. hard to determine cause. Possible causes, HIGH SODIUM, SATURATED FAT, CHOLESTEROL OR DEFINCIENCY OF K, CA, AND MG. Age is another factor (over 40), race (black), heredity also plays factors because high BP has been shown to fun in families. Stress also contributor
cause problems because nicotine causes casoconstriction of arterioles and stimuates the heart to increase cardiac output. raise blood pressure and increase strain on heart
study of blood
excessive levels of bacteria or toxins in the blood, also called blood posioning
clotted blood in tissues which usually result form injury. A hemotoma usually leaves black and blue marks or bruises and are absorbed naturally unless infected
continued rapid heartbeat of greater than 100 BPM. caused by fever, stress and certain drugs
presistnet heart rant of less than 60 BPM and is caused by a herat block, various drugs, shock, or increase intracranial pressure
used to identify abnormal cardiac rhythms
cauess unrestricted reproductin of immature lekocytes which depress the formtion of RBC and platelets. causes anemia and tendency to blood
sickle cell disease
genetic disease taht is most prevealent amount blacks. RBC are disfuged or destroyed
infectious disease transmitted by a virus in saliva and is known as teh kissing disease. MONO primarly affects adolescents and casues fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph glands and fatigue
hardening of arteries
coronoary atherosclerosis
clogging of coronary vessesl with fatty buildup
expansion or buldging of the herat, aorta or other artery
chemical that promotes the formation of urine and reduces blood volume. prescribed to manage hypertension
failure ot heart to contract
heart palpitation
heart beat so strong, fast or irreguar that a person becomes aware of it
varicose veins
weakened veins taht become stretched and swollen. common in legs because of the force of gravity tending to weaken valves and this overloads veins
inflmmation of a vein and may result from a bacterial infection, trauma, or aftermath of surgery. frequently occurs for no apparent reason and interfers with normal venous circultion
incision in a vein to withdrawl blood
heart murmurs
generally of no clincal significance and about 10% of humans have heart murmurs
low BP an is ususally not associated with health problems. may be caused by aging, poor nutrition or ahormonal imbalance
aquired heart disease
may develop suddendly or gradually. includes heart attack(leading cause death), usually inadequant blood suuply, anatomical disorder or conduction disturbance
myocardial disease
inflammation of heart muscle followed by cardiac enlarement and cogestive heart failure. could be part of acquired heart disease
Respiratory system
the metabolism of every cell requires a constant supply of oxygen and teh removal of carbon dioxide
refers to breathing and the exchange of gasses between teh atmosphere, blood and individual cells. to accomplish the functions of the respiratory system, at least four process, collectively called respiration must happen.
pulmonary ventilation
movement of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases there are continuosly changed and refreshed (called breathing)
collaspe of a lung from any cause
acute mountain sickness
rapid travel from low tohigh elevation. symptoms include headache, shortness of breath, nausea and dizziness. in severe cases it may lead to death from pulmonary and cerebral edema
response to long term chang from low to high elevation
when the depth and rate of breathing are increased. hyperventilation enhances alveolar ventilation. it also flushes carbon dioxide out of the blood and increaes the pH of the blood. the person may become dizzy or faint.
low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. breathing into a paper bag would increaes the carbon dioxide levels
breathing slow and shallow
when cessation of breathing may occur until carbon dioxide aganin stimulates respiration
inflammation of nasal mucosa on the inside of the nose
inflammation of the sinuses
common cold
most widely spread of all respiratory disesase. no cure avaliable because there are probably many different kinds of viruses
viral disease that causes inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
inflammation of the tonsils
inflammation of the larynx which produces a hoarse voice and limits the ability to talk
inadequate delivery of oxyge to the body tissues. skin and nail beds become bluish. many causes of hypoxia
carbon monoixde poisioning
type of hypoxia and is teh leading cause of death from fire. 200 ties easier to combine with hemoglobin thatn oxygen. not easily detectable and may cause reddened skin, confusion and a throbbing headache
acute infection and inflammation of lung tissue acompanied by accumulation of fluid (exudation). usually cauesd by bacteria nd can be caused by viruses
black lung disease
a common disorder associated with welders, coalminers and chain smokers. person has to breath harder and faster to get the proper amount of gas which causes the heart to have a beat harder and faster
associated with surface mining or a really dusty atmosphere. silicon pieces are sharp and cut tiny holes in alveolis. elveiolis can fill the blood and the person can die of heart failure
inflammation of teh pleurae and is usually associated with some infection such as pneumonia. plural surfaces may become by and rough or too much fluid may be produced. breathing can become painful and fluid may collect in pleural space
chronic obstrutive pulmonary disease
includes chronic bronchitis and obstrictive emphysema. patients always have a history of smoking. can cause DYSPENA...which is difficult or labored breathing which gets progressiely more severe. coughing an dpulmonary infections are common and patients usually develop respiratory failure
affects persons who are allergic to dust mites. cockroaches, cats, dogs and fungi. cauess swelling and blocking of lower respiratory tubes. may be characterized by panic, coughing and labored breathing. may be extensive periods with no symptoms
caused by bacterium Mybobacerium tuberculosis. about 1/3 of human populatoin is infected, but most do not develop symptoms. symptoms are fever, night sweats, weight loss. severe cough and spitting up blood. can be treated with antibiotics, but not we have resistant forms of bacterium
chronic bronchitis
when inhaled irritants to chronic excessive production of mucus. cigarette smoking is primary cause of air pollution may contribute. inflammation of fibrosis of mucosa in the lower respiratory passageways may occur. bacteira thrive in stagnant pools of mucus which causes frequent infections
obstructive emphysema
caused by the breakdown of alveoli. a misconception of emphysema is that it is cancer, but not correct. frequent cause of death among smokers, but can also be heredity. incresaes the size of air spaces and decress the surface area. chronic inflammation leads to fibrosis and loss of elasticity of lungs. condition leads to the permanent "barrel chest" due to trapped air in lungs
lung cancer
caused by repeated inhalation of irritating substances such as cigarette smoke. cancers of lips, larynx, and lungs are more common among smokers over fifty. one third of all deaths from caner each year. more than 90% of patients with lung cancer were smokers. reate of cure is very low and most people die within one year, only 7% survive
external respiration
movement of oxygen from the lungs to teh blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs (breath in and out)
transport of respiratory gases
transport of oxygen from teh lungs to the tissue cells of the body, and of carbon dioxide from teh tissue cells to teh lungs. accomplisehd by the cardiovascular system using blood as teh transporting fluid
internal respiration
movement of oxygen from blood to teh tissue cells and of carbon dioide from tissue cells to blood (gas exchange)
Physical requires of teh respiratory system
1. structure through which gsa is exchanged into teh circuatory system must be a thin wall structure and differentially permeable so diffusion can occur easily. this membrane must be kept moise so oxygen and carbon dioxide can be dissolved in water. also a rich blood supply must be present. surface for gas exchange must be loated in body so incoming air can be warmed, moistened and cleansed of particles. must also be an effective pumping mechanism to constantly replenish air
functions of respirtory system
1. excahnge of gas in cellular respiration
2. sound production or vocalization as expired air passes over vocal chords
3. assist in abdominal compression during MICTURITION (urinatin), DEFECTION (passing of feces), and PARTURITION (childbirth)
4. coughing and sneezing are protective reflex responses to keep the respiratory system clean
jutting external portion that is part of teh face and teh internal nasal cavity. warms, moistens, and filters inhaled air as it is conducted to teh pharynx. serves as a resonating chamber for speech and houses olfactory receptors.
nasal cavity
has pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells that filter air in the nasal avity and elsewhere in teh respiratory passageway, but not in the lower parts of the pharynx.
antibacteiral enzyme that is secreted in teh nasal cavity. traps dust and bacteria and chemically destroys bacteria
nasal cavity has this, which filtrates moved by cilia toward the throat. swollowed and digested in stomach
sneeze refelx
initiated in teh nasal cavity and expels irritants from the cavity
paranasal sinuses
nasal cavity surrounded by this. airspaces in certain facial bones. produce mucus providing resonance which lightens the skull. when we are sick the paranasal sinuses fill with fluid and make us sound snuffy. the functon of these are teh removal of materials and to make the head light weight
is a chamber connecting the oral and nasal cavities to teh larynx. passageway for air into the larynx and for food in the esophagus
voice box and is a short passageway that connects teh pharnx to teh trachea. passageway for air, sound production and prevents food and forign mateirals from entering trachea
keeps food out of the lower respiratory passages
cough reflex
inititated if somehting other than air centers the larynx. this reflex only works if the person is concious
aka windpipe...flexible tubular connection between the larynx and the bronchial tree. passageway for air and pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium filters the air. smoking kills these cells and they are replaced wit scar tissue
bronchial tree
consists of teh left and right bronchi and the branching bronchiles in teh lugns. tubular connection between the trache and teh alveoli. filtered passageway for air. the trachea branches into 2 primary bronchi, then these branch into 2 of the left and 3 on the right, then about 23 "orders" of branching
mircroscopic, membraneous air sacs within the lungs. functional units of respiration. they are pockets at the ends of the bronchioles and teh site of gaseous exchange between the respiratory and cirulatory systems. are teh site where oxygen is passed to teh cardiovascular system and recieves carbon dioxide from teh same system
major organs of the respiratory system and are located in the pleural cavities in the throax. contain the bronchial trees, alveioli and assocated pulmonaary vessels. pleurae is the serous membranes covering the lungs and lining in the thracic cavity
respiratory zone
presence of alveoli. begins with the terminal bronchioles (last brancehs) which feed into the lungs. on these terminal bronchioles are alveoli that form clustered alveolar sacs. walls of the alveoli are composed of squamous epithelial cells (type 1 cells). alveoli converted by pulmonary capillaries make up the site of gas exchange where oxygen is entering and carbon dioxide is given off
respiratory membrnae
an air blood barrier that has gas on one side and blood flowing past on the other. membrane is formed at the junction of teh alveolar and the capillary walls. gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion, oxygen to blood and carbon dioxide to alveoli
type II cells
cubodial cells in walls of alveoli. secrete surfactant that coats alveolar surfaces. surfactant is material that allwos for small amounts of water to moisten all teh alveolis
alveolar machrophages
dust cells that crawl freely along internal alveolar surfaces and remove huge members of infectious microorganiss. dead macrophages are carried out by ciliary current to the pharnx at a rate of about 2,000,000 per hour
normal respirtory rate and rhythym of about 12-15 breaths per minute. origin of respiratory rhythm is not known but probably involves complex interactions. respiratory system is teh second to the last system that becomes function, it begins are birth, the last is the reproductive system. newborn takes 40-80 breaths/minute and a 5 year old takes 25 breaths/min
difference between intrapulmonary and interpleural
intrapleural pressures keep teh lungs open. mechanism of breathing consists of two phases: inspiration and expiration
when air flows into lungs. five events that occur during inspiration...1. inspiratory muscles contract: diaphragm moves down and flattens, the rib cage is elevated and broadens, and sternum is pulled forward. 2. volume of throacic cavity increase. 3. lungs stretch and intrapulmonary volume increaes. 4. intrapulmonary pressure drops to -1mmHg. 5. air flows into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 (same as atm pressure)
process of air exiting lungs. five events occur during expiration...1. inspiratory muscles relax: diaphgram rises, ribcage decends due to gravity, and sternum is lowered. 2. volume of throaccic cavity decreaes. 3. elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume decreases. 4. intrapulmonary pressure rises to +1 mmHg 5. air flows out of the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure is 0
tidal volume
respiratory volume during normal breathing. about 500 mL of air moves into and out of the lungs each breath
inspiratory reserve volume
amoutn of air that can be forcefully inhaled after the normal tidal inhalation. amount is about 3100 mL in males and 1900 mL in females
expiratory reserve volume
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal tidal exhalation. amount is 1200 mL in males and 700 mL in femlaes
residual voluem
amount of air remaining in the lungs after forced exhalation. about 1200 mL in males and 1100 mL in females
total lung capacity
maximum amount of air in lungs after maximum inspiratory effort. total lung capacity= tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume. for males 6000 mL and 4200 mL for females
vital capcity
maximum amount of air that can be expired after maximum inspiratory effort. sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume. males is 4800 mL and 3100 mL in females
inspiratory capacity
maximum amount of air that can be inspired after normal expiration. equal to the tidal volume and the inspiratory reserve volume. males is 3600 and 2400 in females
functional residual capacity
voluem of air in the lungs after a tidal expiration. equal to the expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume. about 2400 in males and 1800 in females
taking a deep breath, closing the glottis, and forcng air from the lungs aganist teh glottis. can dislodge foreign particles so mucus from teh lower respiratory tract
similar to a cough, except air is directed through nasal cavities as well as through oral cavities. clear the upper respiratory passages
involves inspiration followed by release of air in a number of short expiraitons; primarly an emotionally induced mechanism
same as crying
sudden inspiration caued by spasms of the diaphgragm. sounds occur when inspired air hits vocal cords of the closed glottis. usually short term, but can be chronic
deep inspiration with teh mouth wide open. ventilated all alveoli
infant respiratory distress syndrom (hyaline-membrane disease)
common respiratory disorder of neonates, especially premature babies. alveoli of the lungs are not devloped sufficiently to sustain life until after 20th week of gestatin, thus a high probablity of death. results from deficeint production of surfactant fluid in alveioli. responsible for 1/3 of neonatal deaths
cleft palate
incomplete formation of the palate of teh lip
cystic fibrosis
genetic disorder that produces presistant infections and causes over secretion of mucus that clogs respiratory passages. excess mucus provides a site for airborne bacteiral infections. also affects otehr parts of teh body. imparis digestion by clogging pancratic and bile ducts and also caues sweat glands to function improperly
act of inhaling somehting inot the lungs such as vomit or excessive mucus
deviated septum
when the nasal septum is so far on the one side that it obstructs breathing
nasal polyps
mushroom like benign neoplasms of teh nasal mucosa that may be caued by nasal irritation. may block air flow
nosebleeds, caused by many things including injury, high blood pressure and leukemia
inability to breath in the horizontial position
when air enters pleural cavity surrounding eaither lung and caues the lung to collasep. may be casued by a wound (bullet wound). when hole is repaired, a chest tube can be used to remove air from the pleural cavity which allows the lungs to re-inflate
contain memebane bound cytoplasmic granules and are all phagocytic. include neutrophils, esoinophils, and basophils
most numerous of teh wihte blood cells and account for 50-70% of the WBC population and are twice as large as RBC. chemically attracted to sites of inflammation and are active phagocytes. name neutril means neutral loving because granules take up both basic an d acidic dyes
account for only 2-4 % of leukocytes and are approximately the size of neutriphils. help detoxify foreign substances and secrete enzymes that break down clots. most important role is counterattack parasitic worms. lessen severity of allergies by phagocytoxing antigen antibody compelx. stain brick red with acidic dyes
rarest WBC. average .5-1% population. release the anticoagulant heprain. involved in the inflammatin response. stain purplish black with basic dyes
lack visible cytoplasmic organelles and include monocytes and lymphocytes