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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
1st strategie of the nine essentials
1. Identifying Similarities and Differences
use graphic organizers
easy to view and allows for teacher led inquiry.
allows students to understand complex problems
* Use Venn diagrams or charts to compare and classify items.
* Engage students in comparing, classifying, and creating metaphors and analogies.
2nd of the best practices
summarize and notetaking
analyze whats essential and put in own words
provide rules for creating summary
format of notes should be consistant

Research shows that taking more notes is better than fewer notes, though verbatim note taking is ineffective because it does not allow time to process the information. Teachers should encourage and give time for review and revision of notes; notes can be the best study guides for tests.
* Use teacher-prepared notes.
* Stick to a consistent format for notes, although students can refine the notes as necessary.
3rd set of best practices or the nine essential instructional strategies
. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
**connect effort and achievement
**share stories of successful students
**have students keep a log of their achievements with awards
**pause, Prompt, Praise
Effort and recognition speak to the attitudes and beliefs of students, and teachers must show the connection between effort and achievement. Research shows that although not all students realize the importance of effort, they can learn to change their beliefs to emphasize effort.
* Share stories about people who succeeded by not giving up.
* Have students keep a log of their weekly efforts and achievements, reflect on it periodically, and even mathematically analyze the data
4th essential instructional strategie
Homework and Practice

Homework provides students with the opportunity to extend their learning outside the classroom. However, research shows that the amount of homework assigned should vary by grade level and that parent involvement should be minimal. Teachers should explain the purpose of homework to both the student and the parent or guardian, and teachers should try to give feedback on all homework assigned.

Late or missing assingments get parents involovement
* Establish a homework policy with advice-such as keeping a consistent schedule, setting, and time limit-that parents and students may not have considered.
* Tell students if homework is for practice or preparation for upcoming units.
* Maximize the effectiveness of feedback by varying the way it is delivered.
the 5th essential element
. Nonlinguistic Representations

According to research, knowledge is stored in two forms: linguistic and visual.

The more students use both forms in the classroom, the more opportunity they have to achieve.

Recently, use of nonlinguistic representation has proven to not only stimulate but also increase brain activity.
* Incorporate words and images using symbols to represent relationships.
* Use physical models and physical movement to represent information.

The 6th essential element
6. Cooperative Learning

Research shows that organizing students into cooperative groups yields a positive effect on overall learning.

When applying cooperative learning strategies, keep groups small and don't overuse this strategy-be systematic and consistent in your approach.
* When grouping students, consider a variety of criteria, such as common experiences or interests.
* Vary group sizes and objectives.
* Design group work around the core components of cooperative learning-positive interdependence, group processing, appropriate use of social skills, face-to-face interaction, and individual and group accountability.
The 7th essential element
7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Research shows that feedback generally produces positive results. Teachers can never give too much; however, they should manage the form that feedback takes.
* Make sure feedback is corrective in nature; tell students how they did in relation to specific levels of knowledge. Rubrics are a great way to do this.
* Keep feedback timely and specific.
* Encourage students to lead feedback sessions.

Setting objectives can provide students with a direction for their learning.

Goals should not be too specific; they should be easily adaptable to students' own objectives
* Set a core goal for a unit, and then encourage students to personalize that goal by identifying areas of interest to them.

Questions like "I want to know" and "I want to know more about . . ." get students thinking about their interests and actively involved in the goal-setting process.
* Use contracts to outline the specific goals that students must attain and the grade they will receive if they meet those goals.

Generating testing and hypothesis. Research shows that a deductive approach (using a general rule to make a prediction) to this strategy works best. Whether a hypothesis is induced or deduced, students should clearly explain their hypothesis ad conclusions.
-ask students to predict what would happen if an aspect of a familiar system, such as the government or transportation, were changed.
*ask students to build some something using limited resources. The task generates questions and hypotheses about what may or may not work
the 9th essential element
. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Cues, questions, and advance organizers help students use what they already know about a topic to enhance further learning. Research shows that these tools should be highly analytical, should focus on what is important, and are most effective when presented before a learning experience.
helps students use what they already know about a topic
pause briefly after questions

vary style of advance organizers
What is a Rubric
a course or list of what counts or should count on a list, a listing criteria,Helps students think out what should be evaluated