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37 Cards in this Set
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 Back
compares a group of people with disease to a group without and looks for risk factors

case control study
looks for the risk factor or exposure asks, what happened? 
formula for odds ratio
in words and numerically 
odds ratio = odds of exposure of people with disease / odds of exposure of people without disease
(a/b) / (c/d) = ad/bc 
compares a group with a given exposure vs a group without that exposure

cohort study
looks to see if exposure increases the likelihood of disease asks, what will happen? 
collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of a disease at a particular point in time

crosssectional study
asks, what is happening? looks at prevalence and incidence 
What are the 4 phases of a clinical trial?

phase 1 = assess safety, toxicity, pharmacokinetics with small group of healthy patients "is it safe?"
phase 2 = assess efficacy, optimal dosing, adverse effects in small diseased group. "is it good?" phase 3 = compares treatment to standard in LARGE random study. "is it better?" phase 4: after approval, detects rare and longterm adverse events 
use for screening in diseases with low prevalence

sensitivity, rules out
TP/(TP+FN) 
used as confirmatory test after positive screening test

specificity, rules in
TN/(TN+FP) 
a drug that increases survival will have what affect on prevalence and what affect on incidence?

prevalence = increased becuase more cases in population at a given time / total population at a given time
incidence will not change because it doesn't affect the new cases / population at risk 
probability of getting a disease in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group

relative risk for cohort studies
a/(a+b) / c/(c+d) 
difference in risk between exposed and unexposed

attributable risk = a/(a+b)  c/(c+d)

Number needed to treat

1/ absolute risk reduction

number needed to treat

1 / attributable risk

reduced accuracy in a test is what type of error?

systematic error

reduced precision in a test is what type of error?

random error

in a statistical distribution, a curve as a positive skew.
what is the relationship of the mean, median, mode 
mean > median > mode
mean is biggest! 
in a statistical distribution, a curve as a negative skew.
what is the relationship of the mean, median, mode 
mean < median < mode
mode is biggest! 
type I error (alpha error)

saying there is a difference when none exists
p value = probability of making a type I error 
type II error (beta error)

saying there is not a difference when one exists

probability of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact false

power = 1  beta error

formula for standard error of mean

SEM = standard deviation / square root of sample size

1 SD, 2 SD, 3 SD

68, 95, 99

checks the difference between the means of 2 groups

ttest

checks differences between the means of 3+ groups

ANOVA

checks difference between 2+ percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes

chi squared

correlation coefficient (r) is strongest when the value is ___

1 = perfect positive correlation
1 = perfect negative correlation 
describe primary, secondary, tertiary disease prevention

1 = prevent (vaccine)
2 = early detection (pap smear) 3 = reduce disability (chemo) 
rooting reflex, orients to voice

Birth  3 mo

holds head up, moro reflex dissapears, social smile

3 mo

sits alone, crawls, stranger anxierty

79 mo

imitation, pointing, pincer grasp, walking, mamma dadda

1 yr

imitation of household tasts, page turning, jumping standing on one food, 2 word sentences

2 yr

object permanence occurs at?

12 yrs

parallel play vs cooperative play

parallel = 23 yrs
cooperative = 4 yrs 
copies line or circle drawing

3 yrs

900 words and simple sentences

3 yrs

toilet traning

3 yrs (pee at 3)

tetrad of symptoms with narcolepsy

1. excessive daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks (sudden episodes of sleep without warning)
2. cataplexy (sudden loss ofmuscle tone without lose of consciousness) 3. hypagagic (before sleep) or hypopompic (before awakening) hallucinations 4. sleep paralysis can't move for 2 minutes after waking 