 Shuffle Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read Toggle OnToggle Off
Reading...
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
Play button
Play button
37 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
compares a group of people with disease to a group without and looks for risk factors

case control study
looks for the risk factor or exposure asks, what happened? 

formula for odds ratio
in words and numerically 
odds ratio = odds of exposure of people with disease / odds of exposure of people without disease
(a/b) / (c/d) = ad/bc 

compares a group with a given exposure vs a group without that exposure

cohort study
looks to see if exposure increases the likelihood of disease asks, what will happen? 

collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of a disease at a particular point in time

crosssectional study
asks, what is happening? looks at prevalence and incidence 

What are the 4 phases of a clinical trial?

phase 1 = assess safety, toxicity, pharmacokinetics with small group of healthy patients "is it safe?"
phase 2 = assess efficacy, optimal dosing, adverse effects in small diseased group. "is it good?" phase 3 = compares treatment to standard in LARGE random study. "is it better?" phase 4: after approval, detects rare and longterm adverse events 

use for screening in diseases with low prevalence

sensitivity, rules out
TP/(TP+FN) 

used as confirmatory test after positive screening test

specificity, rules in
TN/(TN+FP) 

a drug that increases survival will have what affect on prevalence and what affect on incidence?

prevalence = increased becuase more cases in population at a given time / total population at a given time
incidence will not change because it doesn't affect the new cases / population at risk 

probability of getting a disease in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group

relative risk for cohort studies
a/(a+b) / c/(c+d) 

difference in risk between exposed and unexposed

attributable risk = a/(a+b)  c/(c+d)


Number needed to treat

1/ absolute risk reduction


number needed to treat

1 / attributable risk


reduced accuracy in a test is what type of error?

systematic error


reduced precision in a test is what type of error?

random error


in a statistical distribution, a curve as a positive skew.
what is the relationship of the mean, median, mode 
mean > median > mode
mean is biggest! 

in a statistical distribution, a curve as a negative skew.
what is the relationship of the mean, median, mode 
mean < median < mode
mode is biggest! 

type I error (alpha error)

saying there is a difference when none exists
p value = probability of making a type I error 

type II error (beta error)

saying there is not a difference when one exists


probability of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact false

power = 1  beta error


formula for standard error of mean

SEM = standard deviation / square root of sample size


1 SD, 2 SD, 3 SD

68, 95, 99


checks the difference between the means of 2 groups

ttest


checks differences between the means of 3+ groups

ANOVA


checks difference between 2+ percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes

chi squared


correlation coefficient (r) is strongest when the value is ___

1 = perfect positive correlation
1 = perfect negative correlation 

describe primary, secondary, tertiary disease prevention

1 = prevent (vaccine)
2 = early detection (pap smear) 3 = reduce disability (chemo) 

rooting reflex, orients to voice

Birth  3 mo


holds head up, moro reflex dissapears, social smile

3 mo


sits alone, crawls, stranger anxierty

79 mo


imitation, pointing, pincer grasp, walking, mamma dadda

1 yr


imitation of household tasts, page turning, jumping standing on one food, 2 word sentences

2 yr


object permanence occurs at?

12 yrs


parallel play vs cooperative play

parallel = 23 yrs
cooperative = 4 yrs 

copies line or circle drawing

3 yrs


900 words and simple sentences

3 yrs


toilet traning

3 yrs (pee at 3)


tetrad of symptoms with narcolepsy

1. excessive daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks (sudden episodes of sleep without warning)
2. cataplexy (sudden loss ofmuscle tone without lose of consciousness) 3. hypagagic (before sleep) or hypopompic (before awakening) hallucinations 4. sleep paralysis can't move for 2 minutes after waking 