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37 Cards in this Set

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compares a group of people with disease to a group without and looks for risk factors
case control study

looks for the risk factor or exposure
asks, what happened?
formula for odds ratio

in words and numerically
odds ratio = odds of exposure of people with disease / odds of exposure of people without disease

(a/b) / (c/d) = ad/bc
compares a group with a given exposure vs a group without that exposure
cohort study

looks to see if exposure increases the likelihood of disease
asks, what will happen?
collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of a disease at a particular point in time
cross-sectional study

asks, what is happening?

looks at prevalence and incidence
What are the 4 phases of a clinical trial?
phase 1 = assess safety, toxicity, pharmacokinetics with small group of healthy patients "is it safe?"

phase 2 = assess efficacy, optimal dosing, adverse effects
in small diseased group. "is it good?"

phase 3 = compares treatment to standard in LARGE random study. "is it better?"

phase 4: after approval, detects rare and long-term adverse events
use for screening in diseases with low prevalence
sensitivity, rules out

TP/(TP+FN)
used as confirmatory test after positive screening test
specificity, rules in

TN/(TN+FP)
a drug that increases survival will have what affect on prevalence and what affect on incidence?
prevalence = increased becuase more cases in population at a given time / total population at a given time

incidence will not change because it doesn't affect the new cases / population at risk
probability of getting a disease in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group
relative risk for cohort studies

a/(a+b) / c/(c+d)
difference in risk between exposed and unexposed
attributable risk = a/(a+b) - c/(c+d)
Number needed to treat
1/ absolute risk reduction
number needed to treat
1 / attributable risk
reduced accuracy in a test is what type of error?
systematic error
reduced precision in a test is what type of error?
random error
in a statistical distribution, a curve as a positive skew.

what is the relationship of the mean, median, mode
mean > median > mode

mean is biggest!
in a statistical distribution, a curve as a negative skew.

what is the relationship of the mean, median, mode
mean < median < mode

mode is biggest!
type I error (alpha error)
saying there is a difference when none exists

p value = probability of making a type I error
type II error (beta error)
saying there is not a difference when one exists
probability of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact false
power = 1 - beta error
formula for standard error of mean
SEM = standard deviation / square root of sample size
1 SD, 2 SD, 3 SD
68, 95, 99
checks the difference between the means of 2 groups
t-test
checks differences between the means of 3+ groups
ANOVA
checks difference between 2+ percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes
chi squared
correlation coefficient (r) is strongest when the value is ___
1 = perfect positive correlation
-1 = perfect negative correlation
describe primary, secondary, tertiary disease prevention
1 = prevent (vaccine)
2 = early detection (pap smear)
3 = reduce disability (chemo)
rooting reflex, orients to voice
Birth - 3 mo
holds head up, moro reflex dissapears, social smile
3 mo
sits alone, crawls, stranger anxierty
7-9 mo
imitation, pointing, pincer grasp, walking, mamma dadda
1 yr
imitation of household tasts, page turning, jumping standing on one food, 2 word sentences
2 yr
object permanence occurs at?
1-2 yrs
parallel play vs cooperative play
parallel = 2-3 yrs
cooperative = 4 yrs
copies line or circle drawing
3 yrs
900 words and simple sentences
3 yrs
toilet traning
3 yrs (pee at 3)
tetrad of symptoms with narcolepsy
1. excessive daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks (sudden episodes of sleep without warning)
2. cataplexy (sudden loss ofmuscle tone without lose of consciousness)
3. hypagagic (before sleep) or hypopompic (before awakening) hallucinations
4. sleep paralysis- can't move for 2 minutes after waking