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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How would you describe an infant's critical period?
A period of time during which synapse are lost and/or maintained based on the experiences of the infant (recall orphaned children with issues)
How would you characterize an easy child?
adaptable, predictable, mood mainly positive (~40% of children)
How would you characterize a slow-to-warm-up child?
slow adaptability, mild expression, if pushed, will eventually adapt (~15%)
How would you characterize a difficult child?
unpredictable, low adaptability, intense mood reactions (~15%)
Explain the concept of goodness of fit?
environment is in agreement with child's temperament and personality
Types of attachment (occurs around 7-8 mos.)
Securely attached
Insecure-avoidant
Insecure-anxious-ambivalent
Around what age do separation anxiety and stranger anxiety appear?
Around 7-8 mos. for stranger anxiety and 12-18 mos. for separation anxiety (coincidences with development of object permanence)
What are the consequences of insecure attachment
poor attachment leads to increased likelihood of poor behavior and social competence later in life
Describe the sensorimotor stage in Piaget's theory?
birth - 2 y/o; develop object permanence, schemas; assimilation (taking and integrating new info) and accommodation (modifying schemas) observed
Describe the preoperational stage in Piaget's theory?
2-7 y/o; child can think symbolically, egocentrism initially, then child see others' perspectives, little concept of length of time
Describe the concrete operational stage in Piaget's theory?
7-11: child achieves concept of conservation and take more than one variable into account
Describe the formal operational stage in Piaget's theory?
>12; abstract thinking
What are the three main parenting styles?
Authoritative- high level of warmth and discipline, effective
Authoritarian- low warmth, high discipline, dep, less friendly
Permissive- high warmth, high discipline, worst in social responsibility
What is the difference between a tantrum and aggression?
Aggressive acts are intentional and directed at others
What gender differences exist with regards to the development of aggression
Boys' aggressive behavior is more physical, verbal and appears as soon as children play together
What are some key developments in the adolescent brain?
Myelination of inhibitory tracts
Reorganization of neural circuits through arborization and cell death
Authority is transferred from emotional systems to cognitive systems
What is the reality about how most adolescents progress through the "storm and stress" of adolescence?
80% go through adolescence without significant distress; disagreements over rules and not core values
How does suicide rank in terms of causes of death of adolescents?
3rd leading cause of death
What percentage of adolescents report suicidal ideation? What is the one-year incidence of attempts in high-schoolers?
25% of adolescents report suicidal ideation
9%: one-year incidence of suicide attempts in high-schoolers
How does homicide rank in terms of causes of death in 15-24 year-olds? What percentage of teens have been a victim of violence?
2nd leading cause of death
24% of teens have been a victim of violence
What is the overall trend in illicit drug use among adolescents?
It has been going down (although painkillers have kind of been going up)
What is the most commonly used substance during adolescence?
Alcohol (accounts for 25-50% of accidents, suicides, homicides)
Describe adult cognitive development
growth and stability of crystallized intelligence
notion of synthetic operational stage
Why might old age bring a return to concrete forms of thinking?
Maintenance of tradition important for stability of the group and to hedge against the risk of innovation
What are Erikson's Stages of Man that apply to adulthood/maturation into adulthood?
Identity - adolescence
Intimacy - young adulthood
Generativity - middle age (bringing along the next generation)
Integrity - old age (conviction that you have been true to yourself)
What are the tasks of the young adult?
Managing "love and work," revision of life structure, identify if necessary
What are the tasks of middle age?
Taking stock, thinking about what you have left in life, becoming a parent to one's aging parents
What are the tasks of the old-aged?
Shedding working role
Grandparenthood