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77 Cards in this Set

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Name four developmental theorists
Erik Erikson; Sigmund Freud; Margaret Mahler; Jean Piaget
Describe Erik Erikson’s theories of development
Critical periods at which achievement of social goals need to be achieved, otherwise they won’t be achieved
Describe Sigmund Freud’s theories of development
Parts of the body from which pleasure is derived at each age of development
Describe Margaret Mahler’s theories of development
Early development is a sequential process of separation of the child from the mother or primary care provider
Describe Jean Piaget’s theories of development
Learning capabilities of the child at various ages during development; children must move through four stages of development. There is a specific set of skills that must be mastered at each stage of development before progression to the other stages
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by an infant establishing faith in their cargiver
Trust vs. Mistrust present from birth to 18 months
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by a child learning physical skills such as walking and learning to use the bathroom
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt present from age 18 months to 3 years
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by a child becoming assertive in their learning
Initiative vs. Guilt present from 3 to 6 years
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by a child acquiring new skills at a rapid rate
Industry vs. Inferiority present from 6 to 12 years
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by a teen who achieves a sense of identity in politics, sex soles, or occupation
Identity vs. Role confusion present from age 12 to 18 years
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by an adult determining whether or not they want to establish an intimate relationship with another individual
Intimacy vs. Isolation present from 19 to 40 years
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by an adult finding ways to support and encourage the next generation
Generativity vs. Stagnation present from 40 to 65
According to Erikson, which stage of development is characterized by an adult reflecting on their life experience
Ego Integrity vs. Despair present from 65 to death
Accoriding to Freud, which stage of development is characterized by focus on receiving pleasure through food consumption or sucking on pacifiers
Oral phase present from birth to 1 year
According to Freud, which stage of development is characterized by focus on receiving pleasure through potty training
Anal phase present from age 1 to 3 years
Accoring to Freud, which stage of development is characterized by focus on identifying with adult role models and the oedipal complex
Phallic phase present from age 3 to 6 years
According to Freud, which stage of development is characterized by focus on expanding social interactions
Latency phase present from age 6 to 12 years
According to Freud, which stage of development is characterized by focus on establishing a family
Genital phase present from age 13 to adulthood
According to Mahler, which stage of development is characterized by an infant trying to achieve homeostasis with the environment
Normal autistic phase from birth to 4 weeks
According to Mahler, which stage of development is characterized by an infant becoming aware of their environment and identifying with their care taker
Normal symbiotic phase form age 4 weeks to 5 months
According to Mahler, which stage of development is characterized by an infant becoming more alert and being able to identify who is familiar vs. who is a stranger
First subphase: Differentiation present from age 5 to 10 months
According to Mahler, which stage of development is characterized by an infant learning to walk
Second subphase: Practicing present from age 10 to 16 months
According to Mahler, which stage of development is characterized by a toddler’s frustration with his or her inability to complete a task without his/her caregiver’s assistance
Third subphase: Rapprochement present from age 16 to 24 months
According to Mahler, which stage of development is characterized by a toddler’s acceptance of his or her caregiver’s absence
Fourth subphase: Constancy phase present from age 24 to 36 months
According to Piaget, which stage of development is characterized by infants and toddlers focus on their eyes, ears, hands, and other senses
Sensorimotor period from birth to 2 years
According to Piaget, which stage of development is characterized by children acquiring representational skills in the area of mental imagery and language
Preoperational thought present from age 2 to 7 years
According to Piaget, which stage of development is characterized by children being more logical, flexible, and organized than in early childhood
Concrete operations present from age 7 to 12 years
According to Piaget, which stage of development is characterized by being able to think logically, theoretically, and abstractly
Formal operations from age 12 to adulthood
Define premature birth
Less than 34 weeks gestation or birth weight less than 2500 g
What are the potential outcomes of being a premature infant
Increased infant mortality; Delayed physical and social development; Emotional and behavioral problems; Dyslexia; Child abuse
In the US, what percentage of births are premature
6% for White women and 13% for African American women. An average of 7.2 per 1000 live births
What are the common risk factors associated with premature births
Low SES; Teenage pregnancy; Poor maternal nutrition
What are the six important neonatal reflexes
Moro; Palmar grasp; Rooting; Stepping; Asymmetric tonic neck; Parachute
What neonatal reflexes are present at birth
Moro; Palmar grasp; Rooting; Stepping
What is the Moro reflex
Head extension causes extremity extension followed by flexion
What is the palmar grasp
If a finger is placed in infant’s palm, it is grasped
What is the rooting reflex
If an object is placed around an infant’s mouth, the infant will pursue it
What is the stepping reflex
When held upright and leaning forward, an infant will make walking motions with their legs
At what age do the Moro, palmar, rooting, and stepping reflexes disappear
4 to 6 months
What is the asymmetric tonic neck reflex
While supine, turning of the head causes ipsilateral extremity extension and contralateral flexion
At what age does the asymmetric tonic neck reflex appear and then disappear
Present at 2 weeks and disappears by 6 months
What is the parachute reflex
While sitting and tilted to one side, an infant extends the ipsilateral arm to support the body
What are the key categories of development
Gross motor; Fine/visual motor; Language; Social
What are the developmental milestones at 1 month of age
Gross motor: When prone lifts head slightly; Fine/visual: With eyes tracks objects to midline; tight grasp; Language: Startles to sound; Social: Fixes on face
What are the developmental milestones at 2 to 3 months of age
Gross motor: Steadily holds head up; when prone lifts chest up; Fine/visual: Hands open at rest; Language: Smiles responsively; coos; Social: Recognizes parents; reaches for familiar objects or people
What are the developmental milestones at 4 to 5 months of age
Gross motor: Rolls front to back and back to front; sits well supported; Fine/visual: Grasps with both hands; Language: Orients to voice; Social: Laughs; enjoys observing environment
What are the developmental milestones at 6 months of age
Gross motor: Sits well unsupported; sits upright; Fine/visual: Transfers hand to hand; reaches with either hand; Language: babbles; Social: Recognizes strangers and has stranger anxiety
What are the developmental milestones at 9 months of age
Gross motor: Crawls, cruises, pulls to stand; Fine/visual: Uses pincer grasp; finger feeds; Language: Says dada/mama; understand No; Social: Waves bye-bye; plays pat-a-cake
What are the developmental milestones at 12 months of age
Gross motor: Cruises/walks alone; Fine/visual: Throws releases objects; Language: One to eight words other than dada/mama; one step commands; Social: Imitates actions; comes when called; cooperates with dressing
What are the developmental milestones at 15 months of age
Gross motor: Walks backward; creeps upstairs; Fine/visual: Builds two-block towers; scribbles; uses a cup; Language: Uses four to eight words; Social: Throws temper tantrums
what are the developmental milestones at 18 months of age
Gross motor: Runs; kicks a ball; Fine/visual: Feeds self with utensils; Language: Points to body parts when asked; names common objects; Social: Plays around but not with other children; start of toilet training
What are the developmental milestones at 21 months of age
Gross motor: Squats and recovers; Fine/visual: Builds five block towers; Language: Two-word combinations; Social: Toilet training
What are the developmental milestones at 24 months of age
Gross motor: Walks well up and down stairs; jumps; Fine/visual: Removes clothing; copies a line; Language: 50 word vocabulary; stranger understands half of speech; Social: Follows two-step commands; engages in parallel play
What are the developmental milestones at 30 months of age
Gross motor: Throws ball over hand; Fine/visual: Removes clothes; copies lines; Language: Appropriate pronoun use; Social: Knows first and last names
What are the developmental milestones at 3 years of age
Gross motor: Pedals tricycle; goes up and down stairs with alternating feet; Fine/visual: Draws a circle; eats with utensils; Language: Three word sentences; uses plural and past tense; stranger understands ¾ of speech; Social: Group play; shares toys
What are the developmental milestones at 4 months of age
Gross motor: Hops and skips; Fine/visual: Catches a ball; dresses alone; copies a cross; Language: Knows colors, counts to 10; Social: Imaginative play
What are the developmental milestones at 5 years of age
Gross motor: Hops and skips; Fine/visual: Ties shoes; Language: Prints first name; Social: Plays cooperative games; understands rules and abides by them
At 7 to 12 months, separation from the mother or primary caregiver results in what
Initially protests, then anaclitic depressions
What is anaclitic depression
When an infant becomes withdrawn and unresponsive. This can lead to death if it is severe and longstanding
What occurs without proper mothering or attachment
Failure to thrive
What occurs during failure to thrive
Developmental retardation; Poor health and growth; High death rates, even with adequate physical care
Toddlers who are hospitalized are most likely to fear what
Separation from parents or card providers more than bodily harm or pain
In what age group is elective surgery best tolerated
7-11 year olds
By age 3, how does separation from parents or care providers affect children
Separation form parents has no long term negative effects on children. In fact, children at age 3 are able to spend significant portions of the day with other adults
How do toddlers understand death
It is an incomplete understanding of the meaning of death and the child may expect a friend, relative, or pet to come back to life
At what age do children begin to understand the concept of death
A the age of 8 years
How do 7-11 year olds react to death
They act out, act badly at school or home (a defense mechanism)
In what age group do children begin to form relationships with other adults
7 to 11 years
Which parents do the 7 to 11 year olds identify themselves with
The same sex parent
How is the start of puberty marked
Cognitive growth and personality formation; In girls—the onset of menstruation beginning at 11 to 12 years; In boys—the first ejaculation, occurring at age 13 to 14 years
How is development through puberty measured
By the Tanner stages
How many Tanner stages are there and what are the three categories of measurement
There are five stages. The catetories are male genitalia, female breasts, and pubic hair
Define Tanner Stage I
Males have a childhood sized penis, testes, and scrotum; Females have preadolescent breast with elevation of the papilla only; There is no pubic hair
Define Tanner Stage II
Males have enlargement of the testes and scrotum; Females have breast buds with elevation of breast and papilla; Pubic hair is sparse and straight with downy hari on labia/penis base
Define Tanner stage III
Males have penis enlargement; Females have breast and areola enlargement with single contour; Pubic hair is curled, darker, and coarse
Define Tanner stage IV
Males have scrotal skin darkening and rogations are present; Females have areola and papilla projection with separate contour (secondary mound); Pubic hair is adult type hair limited to the genital area
Define Tanner stage V
Males have adult sized and shaped penis, testes, and scrotum; Females have mature breasts; Pubic hair is adult quantity and pattern and spreads to the thighs