Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
free will vs determinism definitions
determinism - peoples beh is hereditary and environmental

free will - power to determin our actions regardless of external pressure, we are responsible for our beh
Unconscious determinants of behavior

psychoanalytic constructs
psychoanalitic - unconscious drives, conflicts, mechanisms of defense

beh constructs - advertising, sexual attraction

neural circuitry and beh determinism - over learning, emotions and thought
Habituation and sensitization
habituation - a decrease in strength of reflex due to repeated stimuli,

sensitization - increase in response with repeated stimulus presentation
beep before radio goes on in the car

habituation or sensitization?
touching a hot object resulting in hand withdrawal
reflex - stimulus reliably elicits the same response innately without prior experience
change in capacity for behavior as the result of particular kinds of experience

psychologists find it hard to define
imprinting happens during what period?
critical period , make an association and follow the first thing it sees
ASsociative learning
two events occur together and one learns about the relationship between the two events
three things effecting the formation and strength of associations
contiguity frequency and intensity
describe frequency
strength of conditioned response increases the most early on in conditioning gradually decreasing till you get a stable plateau of performance (like a graph pg 445)
what is contiguity
events that occur together become associated, believed to underlie the formation of associations

events that are seperated in space or time are less likely to be associated, if events are too close together the strength of association is weakened or nonexistant
Pavlovian/classical conditioning
long lasting change established in the brain
UR - unconditioned response, response w/o training
CR - response following associative learning
US- unconditioned stimuli, important event resulting in beh, autonomic and endocrine response
conditioned stimuli - new stimuli elicits beh, autonomic and endocrine response
which is which

salvation with presentation of food

presentation of food


salvation from bell tone



response generalizes from training to the test stimulus,

ie girl associating male teacher with all men
learning as a result of pairing a stimulus with a previously conditioned stimulus
second order conditioning

a male teacher to the smel of an egg salad sandwhich
conditioning to environmental cues present when unconditioned stiumuli are presen
contextual conditioning

ie environmental cues for drug use behavior

or the hallway near a gym
learned helplessness
animal experiment: animal receives painful stimulus which the animal cant escape from. Learns by classical conditioning to assoc pain with inability to escape. done by seligman 1967

possibly could be ptsd
operant conditioning
a response operating on the environment to elicit a consequence

ie pigeon packing at a spot to get food

consequence increases probablity of response happeing again
INCREASE IN BEHAVIOR due to a "reward"
positive reinforcement
stimulus results in increased rate of a behavior
negative reinforcement
removal of an aversive stimulus resulting in increased rate of a behavior
reinforcer that requires no special training to be effective, will be effective for all members of a spp from birth
primary reinforcer
stimulus tha aquires reinforcement through experience, pairing a stimulus with a primary reinforcer
secondary or conditioned reinforcer
child increases her studying to earn money by recieving good grades

what is the reinforcer? positive or negative reinforcement

negative reinforcement?
positive reinforcement?
learned helpelessness?
stimulus generalization?
money is reinforcer, positive reinforcement
a 2 yr old child who is afraid of nurses in white uniforms cries when his grandmother comes in wearing a white jacket

negative reinforcement?
positive reinforcement?
learned helpelessness?
stimulus generalization?
stimulus generalization
children who repeatedly fail in school despite their best efforts eventually stop trying and give up

negative reinforcement?
positive reinforcement?
learned helpelessness?
stimulus generalization?
learned helplessness
child increases her studying behavior to avoid being scolded

negative reinforcement?
positive reinforcement?
learned helpelessness?
stimulus generalization?
avoidance of aversive stimulus (scolding) increases behavior (studying)

negative reinforcement
a patient who walks more to decrease the amoiunt of antihypertension drugs she has to take

negative reinforcement?
positive reinforcement?
learned helpelessness?
stimulus generalization?
negative reinforcement
positive punishment
negative reinforcement
positive reinforcement
learned helpelessness
stimulus generalization
CRF schedule

Ration reinforcement schedule

interval schedule
continuous reinforcement schedule - every response reinforced

Ratio reinforcement schedule - reinforcement depends on the number of reponses that have occured

Interval schedule - reinforcement depens on howmuch time has elapsed since last reinforcer
positive punishment
positive punishment - aversive stimulus is added

(add) (decrease behavior)
negative punishment
aversive stimulus removed

(take away)(decrease behavior)

PAGE 138 book abd
Negative punishment
positive punishment
negative reinforcement
positive reinforcement

child decreases he "fooling around" behavior after mother scolding
positive punishment
Negative punishment?
positive punishment?
negative reinforcement?
positive reinforcement?

avoiding public speaking removies anxiety, each time you do this it gets easier to avoid
negative reinforcement
Negative punishment
positive punishment
negative reinforcement
positive reinforcement

adding an emetic to favorite food
positive punishment, stimulus was added
Negative punishment
positive punishment
negative reinforcement
positive reinforcement

"time out" for a child
negative punishment

child is removed from a more reinforcing environment, taking away something that a child likes
weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus is presented by istelf,
going to work for years then suddenly not getting paid, eventually stop working

is this extinction or negative punishment
extinction - reduces behavior for a long time

ex) time out - because during each time out the child recieves no positive reinforcement(attention) from the parents for the bad behavior, the behavior eventually dies out (extinction)
behavior can't be reinforced if there isnt beh there to begin with, soo

reward when randomly shows behavior close to desired behavior, closer and closer approxiamtions are rewarded
observational learning, observe others and imitate

more effective and efficient then operant or conditional conditioning
learning and neural circuits
learning effects mechanical aspects
psychodynamic theory
two clinical approaches to understanding human behavior and psychopathology
descriptive and psychodynamic
abnormalitites or psychiatric symptoms observed by a doctor, use of symptoms in a checklist to diagnose, problem: what patient reveals may or may not be what he/she really feels
symptoms and abnormal behavior are important only in what they reveal about the internal conflict
psychodynamis four basic principals
lives are governed by external and internal forces, unconscious and conscious

mind has a structure - id(instincts) ego(mediates conscious[language perception memory]and unconscious[defense mechanisms]) superego(prohibitions of society)

psychic determinism(all beh has unconscious meaning)

roots of psychological conflict are laid down in early childhood
freudian slip
diagnosing psychiatric illness
1)unconscious and conscious component of psychological conflict, id ego(defense mech) and superego

2) dynamics of presenting symptoms
3) understanding of the roots of conflict in childhood
elimination from conscious awareness unacceptable things(internal)

note: suppression is conscious "I will worry about it later"
denial of external reality (it wont happen to me, physicians take longer to get to ER after acute chest pain even though they know),
note: repression pertains to internal experience
logic or science to deal with unnacceptable feelings/impulses
separation of idea from it's affect so affect disappears

an individual does not consciously experience any emotion when thinking about/describing an emotional event, they have isolated their emotion from the event
emotion/affect is attached to a SUBSTITUTE

anger at boss is released on children at home
turning against self
displacement where substitute is the SELF
unacceptable impulses/fantasies are retracted in thoughts or action

seen in rituals of OCD

believes one can magically reverse incorrect beh by adopting correct beh

ie AIDS from drug abuse patient quits drug use and starts to exercise, but is hospitalized for complications with AIDS
reaction formation
passive or aggressive impulses/feelings are turned into exact opposite patterns of behavior

unconsciously behaving in a friendly fashion toward someone you don't like because disliking them is personally unacceptable
spending excessively on expensive gifts and clothing for children because mom is unconsciously resentful of responsibilities of child-rearing
reaction formation
excessively bluff and tough individuals like eviul kneivel (counterphobia)
reaction formation
scapegoating, prejudice

attributing unacceptable impulses to another
unwitting adoption of characteristics of someone who is lost by separation rejection or death
intolerable distress is transformed to somatic

a "gentle" man develops paralysis in hand after he had an intense desire to hit someone
mature defense mech

ID instincts are neutralized conflict free to socially acceptable purposes
Regression -
return to immature ways of thinking

craving comfort food during times of stress
not defense mech
unconscious seeking of previous trauma in order to gain mastery
preserve status quo, unwilling to let go

problem with psychodynamic use
strong preoccupation with a childhood object into later life, (not necessarily an external entity, may be part of patients body)
doctor b/cms part of problem, patient experiences the doctor as significant figure from his past

problem with psychodynamic theory
doctor reacts to the patient as is patient was someone from his past

problem with psychodynamic theory
Free association
having patient write down every though entering his/her mind during a session

not realistic
an excitation that impels someone to act leading to it's reduction

erotic or destructive
the current, the present, and the past - explanation of conflict to patient
deeper understanding different from intellectual understanding