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59 Cards in this Set

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5HT1a*
antidepressant; anxiolytics
5HT2a*
target of hallucinogens, atypical antipsychotics
5HT2C
target of hallucinogens, atypical antipsychotics; regulation of appetite, anxiety
5HT3
anxiolytic; cognitive enhancement
5HT4
modulation cognition, anxiety
5HT6
target of hallucinogens, atypical antipsychotics
5HT7
possible regulation of circadian rhythms?
D1
D1 & D2 stimulation is synergistic; cocaine
D2*
therapeutic target/ cause of side effects of antipsychotics
D4
target of atypical antipsychotics
M1
regulatoin of cognition & seizures
M4*
target of antiparkinsonian anticholinergic drugs
NAChR
regulation of tobacco use, cognitive enhancement
alpha2A,B,V
agonists sedative & anti-HTN
H1*
antagonists produce sedation, weight gain
H3
antagonists produce arousal & appetite
dopamine is important in the ______ system & is important in _______
reward system
addictions
cocaine blocks re-uptake of ________
dopamine
what two NT's are increased in mania?
dopamine & NE
what two NT's are decreased in depression?
dopamine & NE
low CNS serotonin levels are associated with what 3 diseases/ behaviors?
suicide
aggression
major depression
GABA is the receptor site for ______
benzodiazepine action
(and... barbiturates, picrotoxin, GABA, steroids... also contains a Cl- channel)
glycine may be involved in what?
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
glutamate is associated with _____ and may be involved in _____
memory
schizophrenia
NMDA R has binding sites for....
glutamate, glycine, & D-serine
endogenous opiods (endorphins, encephalins, dynorphin)
pain modulation, hunger, thirst, mood control
corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)
stress response
substance P
pain
neurotensin
antipsychotics
cholecystokinin
satiety (perhaps indirectly via gut)
vasopressin/ oxytocin
social bonding
neuropeptide Y
stress response (--> fat accumulation)
neurosteroids
implicated in depression, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, ADHD, substance abuse, eating disorders, & postpartum disorders
cytokines
overproduc'n--> arthritis
also probably involved in depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia/ chronic fatigue syndromes
frontal lobes control....
voluntary movement, language production (L), motor prosody (R), comportment, executive function, motivation
temporal lobes control...
audition, language comprehension (L), sensory prosody (R), memory, emotion
parietal lobes control....
tactile sensation, visuospatial function (R), reading (L), calculation (L)
occipital lobes control....
visual & visual perception
hippocampus
short & long-term memory
hypothalamus
Regulates hunger, thirst, & reponse to pain. Levels of pleasure, anger, & aggression.

functionally linked to pituitary
amygdala
integrates internal & external stimuli. assigns emotional significance to sensory experiences.

may mediate learned fear responses (anxiety, panic)
cingulate gyrus
focuses attention on emotionally significant events
septum
has areas that seem to be centers for orgasm
ventral tegmental area
dopamine pathways seem to be responsible for pleasure & addiction
basal ganglia
collectively responsible for repetitive behaviors, reward experiences, & focusing attention
caudate
modulates motor acts. also influences associative & cognitive processes.

normally allows motor system to carry out only those acts that are goal directed. when it fails its f'n, extraneous acts are performed (ie: OCD, Tourette's, tic disorders)

decreased activity in OCD

diminished in Huntington's
putamen
regulates movement, influences learning
globus pallidus
postural control

(Wilson's disease)
substantia nigra
degeneration causes Parkinsons
prefrontal cortex
executive functioning-- involved in thinking about the future, making plans, & taking action. also involved in dopamine pathways, playing a part in addiction & pleasure.
cerebellum
ablation--> coarse movements & tremulousness

active even when a movement is just imagined
association b/w cardiac death & chronic hostility may be explained by ______
chronic increased levels of adrenaline
a placebo effect can be expected in every clinical entity and for every treatment that involves....
1) pain
2) depression
3) anxiety
4) the extrapyramidal system
5) the immune system
6) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
real placebo effects:
1) changes in behavior
2) altered perception
3) reduced anxiety
4) altered brain state ("remembered wellness")
5) altered neurochemicals
artifacts to placebo effect:
1) self-limiting disorders
2) remission
3) regression to the mean
*executive function*
-working memory & recall
-activation, arousal, & effort
-controlling emotions
-internalizing language
-complex problem solving
temporal lobe epilepsy
may have episodes of bizarre behavior, including hallucinations, w/o grand mal siezures.

may show aggressive behavior b/w episodes.
bilateral temporal lobe damage
hypersexuality, placidity, tendency to explore environment w/ mouth, constantly shifting attention, inability to recognize emotional meaning of visual stimuli
basal ganglia
caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra