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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the Kohlberg stages of moral development?
Preconventional level
Stage 1 - Punishment/power
Stage 2 - Focus on own needs, occasionally others

Conventional Level
Stage 3 - behavior adapted to gain approval from S.other
Stage 4- authority/maintaining social order by following rules of an important group

Stage 5 - social contract w/ overall society
Stage 6 - universal principles justice,reciprocity,equality-some stage 5 rules broken
Define Colic, and when does it abate? How doe you treat it?
Crying more than 3 hours/day more than 3 days/week. Cause unknown (air in GI tract?).

Usually resolves by 4 months.

Treatment: Holding, avoiding overstimulation, antispasmodics.
Define normal devel. of crying
Peaks at 6 weeks, most frequent btwn 4-6 PM.
What is the difference between fear and anxiety?
Fear is reaction to threat of (real or imagined) injury.

Anxiety same reaction without knowledge of WHAT the threat is.
What neurotransmitters are implicated in anxiety?
What are behavioral signs of attachment to the mother?
Following mom with eyes/limbs
Smiling at mom
Signaling fright
Need for maternal comfort
What is general withdrawal syndrome?
exhibited by newborns born to mothers who use rec. drugs.

Symptoms: irritability, trembling, vomiting
What can maternal Rubella infection result in?
Heart Defects
Mental Retardation
What are mothers under 15 at risk of?
Spontaneous Abortion
Premature Birth

Obstetric complications b/c less likely to get prenatal care, physically immature
What are predisposing factors to teen pregnancy?
Low Academic achievment/goals
Poor planning for future
Divorced Parents
What are common behavioral responses to divorce by age group?
2 1/2-5 problems sleeping, enuresis, moodiness,anxiety

5-8 bereavment,feel rejection, fantasize reconcil, poor schoolwork

9-12 feigned anger/nonchalance, decline school, peer probs

adolescents- depression, drugs/alcohol, sexual act.
When is distress at hospitilization greatest in children?
6 months to 4 years
Define Pseudocyesis
False pregnancy - symptoms in women with desire or fear of pregnancy
During pregnancy, what happens to sex drive and when should sexual relations be stopped?
Increased drive (pelvic vasocongestion) or decreased (discomfort, self image, fear harming fetus)

Cessation 4 weeks prior to expected delivery date.
How is prematurity defined?

What is it associated with?
Gestation period less than 34 weeks OR birth weight less than 2500 g.

7% births, assoc w/ teen pregnancy, low SE status, poor maternal nutrition
Define anaclitic depression.
Depression in infant (esp between 6-12 mos) due to continued separation from caregiver, resulting in failure to thrive.
What are effects of infant deprivation?
4 W's: Weak, Wordless, Wanting (socially), Wary

Decreased Muscle Tone
Poor Language Skills
Poor socialization Skills
Lack of Basic Trust
Anaclitic depression
Weight Loss
Physical Illness
What can severe deprivation lead to, and when are irreversible changes noted?
Irreversible changes w/ deprivation greater than 6 mos.

Severe deprivation--> infant death
What are some examples of failure to thrive in children?
Developmental retardation
Poor health & Growth
Higher death rates despite adeq physical care
What is the order of frequency of forms of child abuse?
Most frequent - neglect, then physical abuse, 3) sexual, 4) emotional
What are signs of physical abuse, who is often the abuser, and how many deaths/year?
Healed fractures
cigarette burns
subdural hematomas
multiple bruises
retinal detachment/hemorrhage

Female, primary care giver

about 3000 deaths/year in US
Signs sexual abuse, abuser, peak age of incidence?
Genital/anal trauma

Known to victim, usually male

Peak incidence 9-12 years.
What are common scenarios in which children will psych. regress to prev. developmental state.
Physical Illness
Birth of new sibling
What four reflexes are typically present at birth?
Moro reflex (birth to 2mos) = extension of limbs when startled

Rooting reflex - nipple seeking when brush cheek/etc

Palmar Reflex - grasps objects in palm (diss. 2 mos)

Babinski Reflex - large toe dorsiflexes with plantar stimulation
At 3 months, what motor and social milestones are present?
Motor: holds head up, Moro reflex disappears

Social: social smile (at people versus spont smiles at birth)
Can express fear,anger,joy,affection
What about at 4-5 months?
Motor: rolls front to back
sits propped up

Social: recognized people
babbles at 3-4 mos
7-9 months?
Motor: (6-7) picks up objects with thumb and forefinger
Sits alone

Social: Stranger anxiety
orients to voice
by 6 mos bonding established
12-14 months?
Motor: Stands with support, upgoing Babinski disappears
12-15 months?
Motor: walks

Social: (10-15) few words, separation anxiety (10-18)
When are transitional objects employed?
(ex - teddy bear)
2 mos-2 years, usually discarded by age 4
What are stages of toddler development, starting with:

12-24 mos (1-2 years)
Motor: Climbs Stairs, Stacks 3 blocks

Social: Object Permanence
18-24 months (1 1/2- 2 years)
Motor: Stacks 6 blocks
Toilet training becomes POSSIBLE at 18 mos (sphincter control)

Social: Rapprochement (moving away and returning to mom for reassurance)
24-36 months (2-3 years)
Core GENDER identity
can say phrases
avg vocab 200 words

Motor: kicks ball, balances on one foot for one second
24-48 months (2-4 years)
Parallel play (plays along with others while ignoring them)
Preschool development

30-36 months (just under 3)
Motor: stacks 9 blocks

Toilet Training
3 years
Rides tricycle
Copies line or circle drawing

Social: Group Play
4 years
Simple drawings (stick figures)
Hops on 1 foot

Cooperative Play
5 years
Fairly normal syntax
detailed drawings
School age child (6-11)
Development of conscience (superego)

Same sex Friends

Identification with same sex parent
At what age do boys and girls respectively enter puberty?
Boys - 13 years

Girls - 11 years

Abstract Reasoning (formal operations)

Formation of personality
Define Climacterium
diminution in physiologic function that occurs during midlife (men - decreased muscle strength, endurance, sexual performance, women-menopause)