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43 Cards in this Set

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What is learning?
Motor response in relation to sensory input. It is necessary for survival.
Non-associative learning
UR: unconditioned response/biological (salivating
freezing)
CR: conditioned response to CS (salivating
freezing)
PTSD and fear conditioning?
Instrumental: associating motor action with stimulus (press lever for food pellet)
Why are Aplysia a great model for studying learning and memory?
Small nervous system
receptors for glutamate: AMPA (Na+ channel) and NMDA (Ca++ channel) in post-synaptic neuron. NMDA usually blocked by Mg++. Great deal of depolarization makes NMDA receptor "change shape" and expel Mg++
so NMDA opens and both Na+ and Ca++ are entering. Rise in Ca++ activates protein kinase C
periaqueductal gray -> freezing
paraventricular nucleus (PVN) -> stress hormones.
Difference between fibers that send pain messages?
A-delta: 1st pain
C fibers: 2nd pain
unmyelinated
CMR1 - on C fiber
cool (menthol)
Some areas pf brain involved in pain perception?
Opiates inhibit inhibitory interneurons in PAG - increase activity of neurons w/ axons descending to raphé nuclei w/ axons descending to dorsal columns of spinal cord. serotonergic activity of descending dorsal column axons excite inhibitory spinal interneurons that block incoming pain signals
TENS?
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Stimulates nerves around source of pain. Acts through the opioid system.
What is phantom limb pain?
Globus Pallidus
Substantia Nigra
Subthalamic Nucleus
Direct/Indirect systems of basal ganglia
DIRECT: D1 in striatum -> inhibits Globus Pallidus internal (GPi)
INDIRECT: D2 in striatum -> inhibits Globus Pallidus external (GPe)
which is inhibitory -> leading to excitatory STN -> excites inhibitory GPi -> inhibits action (modulates)
What would happen if you add D1 antagonist to putamen?
Provide L-DOPA (which only works to a point because of degeneration
it depends on the amount of cells.
Surgical treatments to sidestep dopamine - some success
Huntington's disease?
Degeneration of caudate/putamen - uncontrollable movement (chorea)
Cerebellar ataxia?
anterior - hypothalamus - releasing inhibitory factors (not hormones) sent from hypothalamic pituitary portal system that acts on remote glands to release hormones
Main genetic difference between males/females?
F: XX
M: XY
SRY genes - how does it differentiate males/females in normal dev't?
SRY on Y chromosome. Differentiates gonadal tissues into testes. Default = female development (ovaries and estrogen). No SRY gene = no testes. Yes SRY gene = testes -> testosterone & AMH -> repress ovaries/estrogen.
How does testosterone masculinize tissue? Describe role of alpha-5-reductase and alpha-fetoprotein
Wolffian system: male internal sex organs (epididymis
testes
AMH: inhibits mullerian system.
Testosterone is male hormone
T/F?
False - females also have testosterone produced from adrenal glands
but not as much.
Turner's syndrome
estrous - reabsorb endometrium - usually only have sex during estrus cycle
What are pheromones?
chemical released by one animal that affects behavior or physiology of another
Lee-Boot Effect
INAH-3: (3rd interstitial nucleus in anterior hypothalamus) in homosexual males are more like females.
BNST in transgender males
what is problem?
Problem: What comes first? What affects what? Change in brain or change in behavior?
Brain mechanisms in male sexual behavior
Medial Preoptic Area (MPA) - in hypothalamus
Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (nPGi) - nucleus in medulla - male sexual reflexes
Brain mechanisms in female sexual behavior
Ventromedial Nucleus of Hypothalamus (VMH)
What is learning?
Motor response in relation to sensory input. It is necessary for survival.
Non-associative learning
CR: conditioned response to CS (salivating, freezing)
PTSD and fear conditioning?
PTSD shows failure of extinction in fear conditioning model - they keep experiencing the fear
Differentiate Classical vs Instrumental conditioning?
Instrumental: associating motor action with stimulus (press lever for food pellet)
Why are Aplysia a great model for studying learning and memory?
Small nervous system, large neurons, simple genetics, identifiable neurons + circuits
Describe how gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia is habituated?
receptors for glutamate: AMPA (Na+ channel) and NMDA (Ca++ channel) in post-synaptic neuron. NMDA usually blocked by Mg++. Great deal of depolarization makes NMDA receptor "change shape" and expel Mg++, so NMDA opens and both Na+ and Ca++ are entering. Rise in Ca++ activates protein kinase C, and CaMKII (Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II)
Hippocampus involved in...
Declarative memory - things you know that you know (episodic, etc)
Fear conditioning circuit
paraventricular nucleus (PVN) -> stress hormones.
Difference between fibers that send pain messages?
A-delta: 1st pain, myelinated, fast
C fibers: 2nd pain, unmyelinated, slow
How does capsaicin result in perception of heat?
VR1 receptor agonist - it acts on channels responsive to heat (TRPV1/VR1 on C fiber)
TRPV1/TRPV2/CMR1?
CMR1 - on C fiber, cool (menthol)
Some areas pf brain involved in pain perception?
PAG, Amygdalla, hypothalamus
Analgesia?
Opiates inhibit inhibitory interneurons in PAG - increase activity of neurons w/ axons descending to raphé nuclei w/ axons descending to dorsal columns of spinal cord. serotonergic activity of descending dorsal column axons excite inhibitory spinal interneurons that block incoming pain signals
TENS?
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Stimulates nerves around source of pain. Acts through the opioid system.
What is phantom limb pain?
Subthalamic Nucleus
Direct/Indirect systems of basal ganglia
DIRECT: D1 in striatum -> inhibits Globus Pallidus internal (GPi), which is inhibitory -> action!
INDIRECT: D2 in striatum -> inhibits Globus Pallidus external (GPe), which is inhibitory -> leading to excitatory STN -> excites inhibitory GPi -> inhibits action (modulates)
What would happen if you add D1 antagonist to putamen?
No movement
Parkinson's disease? How does it result in tremors?
Surgical treatments to sidestep dopamine - some success
Huntington's disease?
Degeneration of caudate/putamen - uncontrollable movement (chorea)
Cerebellar ataxia?
anterior - hypothalamus - releasing inhibitory factors (not hormones) sent from hypothalamic pituitary portal system that acts on remote glands to release hormones
Main genetic difference between males/females?
F: XX
M: XY
SRY genes - how does it differentiate males/females in normal dev't?
SRY on Y chromosome. Differentiates gonadal tissues into testes. Default = female development (ovaries and estrogen). No SRY gene = no testes. Yes SRY gene = testes -> testosterone & AMH -> repress ovaries/estrogen.
How does testosterone masculinize tissue? Describe role of alpha-5-reductase and alpha-fetoprotein
AMH: inhibits mullerian system.
Testosterone is male hormone, T/F?
True - causes masculinization of tissue, males have more
False - females also have testosterone produced from adrenal glands, but not as much.
Turner's syndrome
Single X chromosome, no SRY gene, abnormal female development
Androgen Exposure
estrous - reabsorb endometrium - usually only have sex during estrus cycle
What are pheromones?
chemical released by one animal that affects behavior or physiology of another
Lee-Boot Effect
INAH-3: (3rd interstitial nucleus in anterior hypothalamus) in homosexual males are more like females.
BNST in transgender males, what is problem?
Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis - larger in males than females.
Problem: What comes first? What affects what? Change in brain or change in behavior?
Brain mechanisms in male sexual behavior
Medial Preoptic Area (MPA) - in hypothalamus
Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (nPGi) - nucleus in medulla - male sexual reflexes
Brain mechanisms in female sexual behavior
Ventromedial Nucleus of Hypothalamus (VMH)