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18 Cards in this Set

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The ability to learn and then recall the information.
Memory
What anatomical sites of the brain are responsible for memory function?
Bilateral circuits or pathways involving the temporal lobe and thalamus. Specifically:
-Hippocampus
-Fornix
-Mammillary Bodies
-Anterior Thalamic Nucleus
What is amnesia caused by?
1. EtOH-Bilateral thalamic and mammillary body lesions in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
2. Anoxia (cardiac arrest survivors)-Bilateral hippocampal lesions
3. Herpes encephalitis-Bilateral hippocampal lesions
4.Aging
The inability to conceptualize and perform a skilled, learned, motor act on command.
Apraxia
What kind of apraxia would be caused by a prefrontal lobe lesion?
Gait Apraxia
What kind of apraxia would be caused by posterior cortical/parietal lesions?
Constructional apraxia
Dressing apraxia
What is agnosia?
Impaired recognition of perceived stimuli caused by lesions of the sensory association cortex.
What syndromes would a lesion in the temporal lobes cause?
Amnesia
Kluver-Bucy
Possible Wernicke's aphasia
What is caused by lesions of the non-dominant parietal lobe?
Hemispatial neglect.
Where would the lesion be if a patient presented with Gerstmann's syndrome?
Supramarginal or angular gyrus of the dominant parietal lobe.
Gerstmann's-agraphia, right-left disorientation, dyscalculia, and finger agnosia.
What are occiptal lobe syndromes?
Cortical blindness, sometimes accompanied by denial or anawareness of visual loss (aka Anton's syndrome).
What can temporo-occipital lesions produce?
Bilateral-visual agnosia
(can't recognize faces)

Dominant side-color anomia
Abrupt fluctuating levels of attention and motor activity.
Delirium (acute confusional state)
Diffuse impairment of cortical function which usually evolves less abruptly over a longer period and impedes daily function.
Dementia
-remember to screen for depression
-can have personality changes
-memory loss if the first deficit noticed.
How do you evaluate for dementia?
1. MMSE
2. MRI to determine etiology
3. LP if febrile
4. Chem 7/CBC, Vit B12, TFTs
What is the most common type of dementia in the US?
Alzheimer's
Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's
Excessive accumulation of beta-amyloid in the from of extracellular amyloid or senile cortical plaques.
-Beta amyloid leads to formation of neurofibrillary tangles consisting of tau protein.
Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's
Excessive accumulation of beta-amyloid in the from of extracellular amyloid or senile cortical plaques.
-Beta amyloid leads to formation of neurofibrillary tangles consisting of tau protein.