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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the forebrain divided into?
telencephalon and diencephalon
what is the other name for the midbrain?
what is the other name for the hindbrain? what is it divided into?
rhombencephalon; metencephalon and myelincephalon
what does the telencephalon form?
grey (cortex) and basal ganglia
what does the diencephalon form?
thalamas and hypothalamus
what does the mesencephalon form?
superior and inferior colliculus
what does the metencephalon form?
pons and cerebellum
what does the myelincephalon form?
medulla and spinal cord
what is the striatum made of?
caudate and putamen
what is the lenticulate nucleus made of?
the putamen and globus pallidus
what fibers travel from the cortex to the striatum?
cortical striate fibers
the remnant of what sulcus separates the dorsal and ventral thalamus?
sulcus limitans
what does the dorsal part of the thalamus deal with? ventral?
dorsal: sensory
ventral: motor, autonomic impulses (heart rate, respiration, etc)
what part of the thalamus receives the optic tract and auditory impulses respectively?
lateral and medial geniculate
lat: optic
med: auditory
what structures are included in the limbic lobe?
amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampal gyrus
what is another name for the central sulcus?
rolandic fissure
what area is the precentral gyrus? what does it give rise to?
area 4, gives rise for the most part to the corticospinal tract
what are the 3 subdivisions of the inferior frontal gyrus?
par orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis
where are areas 44 and 45? what are they collectively called?
in front of the base of the precentral gyrus, called Broca's speech area
what is Broca's area responsible for? what happens if a lesion is here?
production of speech; muscles of the larynx/pharnyx will lose their motor associations (they will not be paralyzed)
what are the area numbers of the postcentral gyrus? what are the area numbers of the rest of the parietal lobe?
from anterior to posterior: 3, 1, 2
rest of the parietal lobe: 5 and 7 (sensory association cortex)
what is hemineglect? what can it result from?
results from a lesion in area 5 or 7; people don't recognize the opposite side of their body as belonging to themselves
where are areas 41 and 42? what are they responsible for?
anterior and posterior temporal gyri; auditory impulses come into consciousness here
where is area 22? what is it responsible for?
superior and middle temporal gyri; is the auditory association cortex
what is receptive aphasia? what does it result from?
pt can't understand what is being spoken; results from a lesion in area 22
what is expressive aphasia? what does it result from?
loss of ability to speak; results from a lesion in Broca's area
where is Wenicke's area? what does a lesion here result in?
inferior to the posterior part of the lateral fissure; lesion results in loss of language all together
where does vision come to a conscious level?
area 17 (primary visual cortex), which is on either side of the calcarine fissure
where is the visual association cortex located? what does this allow for?
areas 18 and 19 (lateral from area 17); allows us to know what we see
what occurs if a lesion is present in area 18? 19?
18: cortical blindness (person can see, but doesn't understand what is seen)
19: person will know what to do with an object, but won't be able to name the object
what kind of disease is Alz?
disease of the association cortex
what gyrus is important in the ability to lay down new memories?
what represents the closure of the anterior neuropore from embryological development?
lamina terminalis
what does the posterior commissure connect?
2 areas on either side of the superior colliculus called the pretectal nuclei (concerned with visual reflexes)
what relays impulses from the hypothalamus to the brainstem?
dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
what is the subcallosal gyrus important in?
receiving olfactory sensations
where is the paraolfactory area of Broca? what does it do?
anterior to the lamina terminalis; receives olfactory sensations
where does the fornix terminate?
in the mamillary bodies
what is contained in the uncus?
what can a massive internal bleed cause?
uncal herniation due to pressure on the tentorium cerebelli
what is another name for the insular cortex?
isle of reile
what is the difference between the insular cortex and the parietal lobe?
insular: visceral association center
parietal: somatic sensory cortex
what provides dopamine to the cerebral cortex? what would a lack of this structure be seen in?
substantia nigra, Parkinson's disease
what are the only sensations from the body that do not pass through the posterior limb of the internal capsule on their way to the primary cortex?
olfaction, vision, and auditory
what is the subicular?
transition between a 6-layered cortex and a 3-layered cortex
what structure does the subicular transition into, which then interdigitates with the dentate gyrus?
the cornuu ammonis (Ammon's horn)
what structure of the fornix are important in memory and emotions?
what is Papez's circuit?
HF --> fornix --> mammillary bodies --> mammilothalamic tract --> anterior nucleus of dorsal thalamus --> anterior limb of internal capsule --> cingulate gyrus --> cingulum --> hippocampal gyrus --> HF
what structures make up the limbic lobe?
amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, olfactory impulses
what kind of neurons are the olfactory neurons?
bipolar sensory neurons
what is the name of the cells that olfactory neurons synapse on?
mitral cells
what 5 things is the medial olfactory tract made of?
septum pellucidum
olfactory trigone
medial portion of the anterior perforated substance
subcallosal gyrus
paraolfactory area of Broca
neurons from the medial olfactory tract send their axons to the hypothalamus via what bundle? where does this bundle terminate?
medial forebrain bundle; terminates on the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus
what is the pathway of the lateral olfactory tract?
prepiriform cortex --> anterior perforated substance --> corticomedial amygdaloid nucleus --> basolateral nucleus --> hippocampal gyrus --> HF
what kind of impulses can stimulate Papez's circuit?
what is the last part of the cortical areas to become myelinated in man?
the prefrontal cortex
what 2 things can result from lesions in the amygdala?
placidity or sham rage
what is dr. kinney's favorite disease that can affect the limbic structures?
paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis
what disease often affects chronic alcoholics and impairs their ability to lay down new memories? what area of the brain does this affect?
Wernicke-Korsakoff psychosis; affects the mammillary bodies
what is akinetic mutism?
loatheness to move, depression, decreased memory
what transmits impulses from the mammillary bodies to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus?
mammalothalamic tract
what is the result of bilateral paralysis of the abducens nuclei?
eyes turn medially, bilateral internal strabismus, diplopia
what does paralysis of conjugate gaze mean?
patient cannot move their eyes in the horizontal plane
what nutrient deficiency accompanies chronic alcohol consumption?
what is thiamine required for?
trans-ketolase activity, especially in the hexose-monophosphate shunt
what part of the brain degenerates in chronic alcoholics?
anterior vermis of the cerebellum
what is confabulation?
when the patient makes up logical stories to fill in gaps in their memory
what is kluver-bucy syndrome?
when herpes simplex attacks the medial temporal lobes, particularly the amygdala and the hippocampus
what is psychic blindness?
patients don't understand what they see and they examine everything orally
depression is linked to lesions where?
in the left frontal lobe
mania is linked to lesions where?
in the right frontal lobe
what kind of abnormal brain anatomy is associated with schizophrenia?
decreased superior temporal gyrus volume compared to controls, enlarged ventricles, decreased blood flow to the frontal cortex
what parts of the brain does Pick's disease affect? what parts does it never affect?
affects the frontal and/or temporal lobe, but NEVER the parietal and occipital lobes
how to Pick's patients present?
with behavioral problems first and then they become demented
what kind of disease is Pick's disease?
a lobar degeneration disorder
what kind of disease is Alz disease?
a disease of associated cortex
how is Pick's disease different from Alz disease?
Alz affects ALL the lobes of the CNS
what is decreased in people with depression?
NE, serotonin, or both
what structure of the brain makes NE?
locus ceruleus
what structure of the brain makes serotonin?
dorsal raphe nucleus
stress causes an increase of what hormone that, in turn, causes the release of what other hormone?
ACTH, causes release of cortisol
what is the generic name for prozac?
what is the generic name for celexa?
what is the generic name for lexapro?
what is the generic name for zoloft?
what is the generic name for paxil?
name 5 SSRIs and their side effects.
prozac: very long half-life, significant sexual side effects
celexa: acts much quicker, least amount of sexual side effects
lexapro: acts quickly and has few sexual side effects
zoloft: causes diarrhea, and sexual side effects
paxil: sexual side effects
what is the generic name for wellbutrin? what does this drug do?
buproprion; increases both NE and dopamine while countering sexual side effects from SSRIs
name 3 serotonin and NE reuptake blockers.
what is the generic name for remeron?
what is the generic name for effexor?
what is the generic name for cymbalta?
what 2 drugs are used for suicide prevention?
lithium and clozaril
what are the 5 contraindications for ECT?
incranial mass
recent CVA
recent MI
decreased cognitive abilities
what does succinylcholine do?
blocks neuromuscular functioning
what are the 2 predictors for success with ECT?
total seizure time of 226 seconds
improved score on a Folstein mini mental mental state exam
what produces acetylcholine and degenerates in Alz disease?
nucleus basalis of meynert
what pathway terminates in the red nucleus?
the dentatorubrothalamic pathway of the superior cerebellar peduncle
what are the 2 parts of the red nucleus? what do they give rise to or send axons to?
caudal red nucleus: gives rise to the crossed rubrospinal tract
rostral red nucleus: neurons send axons up to the ventralis lateralis
what frontal-subcortical circuit, when damaged, results in executive dysfunction?
dorsolateral prefrontal circuit
what frontal-subcortical circuit, when damaged, results in disinhibition or mood lability?
orbitofrontal circuit
what frontal-subcortical circuit, when damaged, results in apathy/abulia?
anterior cingulate circuit