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43 Cards in this Set

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one way to increase the reliability of observations is to...
Have two observers recording and compare results of observations.
method of recording where sample behavior is recorded for a long period of time and is measured periodically thorughout the day
Time sampling
recording each and every time a resonse of interest occurs
event recording
recording whether an event occurs within a designated time frame (10 seconds, f.e)
interval recording
when something is learned and eventually reinforced naturally
behavior trapping
the term __________ refers to behavior that is elicited, and the term _________ refers to behavior that is emitted.
Respondent; operant
Any stimulus (or event) that follows a response and increases its frequency is said to have a
Reinforcement function
In terms of the Stroop effect, behavior analysts point to ____________ and _________ as reasons for hesitations.
response competition and history of reinforcement
Positive and negative reinforcers are examples of
Stimulus classes
When many extraneous variable are rules out by an experimental design, the experiment is said to be high in ___________________. However it is now not very _______________.
Internal validity; generalizable
Behaviors that are based on genetic endowment of an organism are called
Phylogenetic behaviors
Phylogenetic pairing of stimuli and response common to all in a species
Fixed Action patterns
US / UR
unlearned stimulus and response. unlearned in that it does not require any previous experience.
3 primary laws of the reflex
1.) Threshold- stimulus must be strong enough to elicit a response.
2.)intensity- describes the relationship between intensity of stimulus and its evoked response
3.) Latency- the time between the stimulus and the response.
when an unconditioned stimulus repeatedly elicits an unconditioned resonse gradually declines in magnitude.
Habituation
what happens as far as the speed of habituation
the relationship habituates quickly and then levels off.
If U.S is withheld for some time what happens to a previously habituated relationship?
it recovers
when habituation is repeatedly reached each subsequent habituation...
occurs sooner (after fewer pairings).
behaviors that arise from learning
Ontogenetic behaviors
the transfer of control of behavior from one stimulus to another (S-S pairing) (Food-Bell)
Respondent conditioning
the respondent is the...
Conditioned response (Salivation)
In Pavlov's dogs what are UCS, CS, UCR, CR
UCS: Food
UCR: Salivation
CS: Bell / Light
CR: Salivation
When pairing of the CS and CR becomes more successful
respondent acquisition
Continously presenting the CS in the abscence of the UCS...
Respondent extinction
the observation of an increase in the conditioned response after it had become extinct.
Spontaneous recovery
When an organism shows a conditioned response to values of the Conditioned stimulus that were not trained during acquisition.
Respondent generalization
When an organism shows a conditioned response to one stimulus but not to other similar events.
Respondent discrimination
when the CS is presented a few seconds after the UCS this is a temporal relation known as
Delay (Most effective)
When the CS and the UCS are paired together at the same time, this is a temporal relation known as
Simultaneous (not good)
When the CS is presented after a gap of time passes from introduction to the UCS, this is a temporal relation known as
Trace (better than simultaneous but worst than delay)
When the CS comes before the UCS, this is a temporal relation known as
Backward conditioning (ineffective)
The order of temporal relations from best to worst in production of relationship...
1.) Delay
2.) Trace
3.)Simultaneous
4.)Temporal/Backward
Pairing an existing CS with a new CS (CS2) rather than another UCS is a conditioning known as
Second-order conditioning
when a compound stimuli are presented at the same time and one pairs with the UCS but one does not (THIS IS BECUASE OF STRENGTH OF STIMULI)
Overshadowing
When a previous pairing of UCS with CS does not allow further pairing with other CS (Realize this is because of PREVIOUS LEARNING)
Blocking
when two stimuli are presented together (say a light and tone) and later a light is paired with food; however, when a tone is played it also causes salivation because it was paired to the other stimulus that evoked a response
Sensory Preconditioning
Rescorla-Wagener model:
ΔV= S[Vmax- (V-Vsum)]
v= change in associative strength
S= salience
(V-Vsum) starts at O and becomes a different # (ΔV)
In drugs or heroin specifically, a CS is presented without a UCS causing cravings this pocess is known as
conditioned withdrawal
Rescorla-Wagner model suggests pairings occur
Gradually
Drug problems are reinforced by...
elicited conditioned response
Reflexive behavior is said to be ____________ and ___________
involuntary; elicited
to do away with unwanted CR one should...
present the CS without the UCS
A form of temporal conditioning where there is no overlap of CS and UCS is known as...
Temporal