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57 Cards in this Set

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who changed developmental theories to include adults?
Erikson

said dvlpt is an ongoing process, continuous.

change is constant, adjustment is ongoing
Physical Development
Frontal Lobes 'finish hooking up'- an adult process
Advances in physical state w/age
1. CNS myelination- intellectual skills dvlop until age of 30, then decline
2. Body Comp- mass inc well into 20s (esp males)
Declines in physical fxn w/age
may be related to practice and inactivity
start to decline in 20s

DEC: sensory acuity, speed of activity, revovery time, aerobic capacity
continuity in terms of fxn
at top: young/active
middle: young/inactive, old/active
bottom: old/inactive
Attention and Orientation
should remain sound throughout aging
Working memory
1. assoc/dependent on attention
2. is the amt of memory that you can hold, reorg, and use
3. stays stable with age
4. about 6-8sec
Immediate Memory
1. briefly retained, then spit back out
2. about 30sec
3. test with word list
Types of Immediate Memory
1. Free Recall- declines with age. declines at 40
2. Cued recall- given a hint, impt for older adults
3. Recognition- use the actual word. stays intact with age, even with Alzheimer's/dementia
Delayed Memory
1.imformation given 5min prior cannot be recalled
2. Significantly impaired with dementia/alz
high-school/college educated misses 1 or 2 on MMSE
get them examined. not a good thing

There is a RAPID decline in memory/cognition with educated people
Remote Memory
1. things you have known for many years
-where you grew up, where married, etc
2. Retained with dementia/alz
Spatial problem solving
1. perceptual org- young males are best, declines w/ age
2. Copying- dec sharp angles w/ age
3. Construction- may be related to dec in perceptual skills
Language

Fluency

Spontaneous speech
INC w/ age up to certain point

ability to come up with words. Inc w/ age

holding a conversation. normal adults should be able to do this
Types of memory Retained with dementia and Alzheimer's
1. Recognition
2. Remote

delayed mem declines rapidly w/ these diseases
who changed developmental theories to include adults?
Erikson

said dvlpt is an ongoing process, continuous.

change is constant, adjustment is ongoing
Physical Development
Frontal Lobes 'finish hooking up'- an adult process
Advances in physical state w/age
1. CNS myelination- intellectual skills dvlop until age of 30, then decline
2. Body Comp- mass inc well into 20s (esp males)
Declines in physical fxn w/age
may be related to practice and inactivity
start to decline in 20s

DEC: sensory acuity, speed of activity, revovery time, aerobic capacity
continuity in terms of fxn
at top: young/active
middle: young/inactive, old/active
bottom: old/inactive
Attention and Orientation
should remain sound throughout aging
Working memory
1. assoc/dependent on attention
2. is the amt of memory that you can hold, reorg, and use
3. stays stable with age
4. about 6-8sec
Immediate Memory
1. briefly retained, then spit back out
2. about 30sec
3. test with word list
Types of Immediate Memory
1. Free Recall- declines with age. declines at 40
2. Cued recall- given a hint, impt for older adults
3. Recognition- use the actual word. stays intact with age, even with Alzheimer's/dementia
Delayed Memory
1.imformation given 5min prior cannot be recalled
2. Significantly impaired with dementia/alz
high-school/college educated misses 1 or 2 on MMSE
get them examined. not a good thing

There is a RAPID decline in memory/cognition with educated people
Remote Memory
1. things you have known for many years
-where you grew up, where married, etc
2. Retained with dementia/alz
Spatial problem solving
1. perceptual org- young males are best, declines w/ age
2. Copying- dec sharp angles w/ age
3. Construction- may be related to dec in perceptual skills
Language

Fluency

Spontaneous speech
INC w/ age up to certain point

ability to come up with words. Inc w/ age

holding a conversation. normal adults should be able to do this
Types of memory Retained with dementia and Alzheimer's
1. Recognition
2. Remote

delayed mem declines rapidly w/ these diseases
Spontaneous speech
talking, holding a conversation, or answering a question

changes with age in context that normal healthy adults tend to ramble,digress, and elaborate
Fluency
a measure of how rapidly you can access words
Executive Function
number of different tasks in daily function

(4) Attention, Impulse control, abstraction, evaluation
Attention
moderated by frontal lobes
damage to frontal lobes makes you distractible and disorganized
Impulse control
controlled by frontal lobes
keep from performing certain actions

Test: have a color spelled out but in a dfft color ink. ask them to say the color not the word
Abstraction
form concepts, manipulate info into new uses
evaluation
monitor our own choices and behavior and consider the outcomes of our actions

Children do NOT have this capacity
test by having them shift to a new rule
Motor tasks
test by manipulating pegs into hold with both hands, one hand, opp hand

Motor slowing with age. improve with use
Frontal lobes control
1. Impulse control
2. Attention
Visual Tracking task
process slows down with age
Perform the same across a lifespan
Verbal Tasks
Five Factors of Personality
Operate on a continuum
do not change very much after 25

1. Neuroticism
2. Extraversion
3. openness
4. Agreeableness
5. conscientousness
neuroticism
high score- edgy, irritable, in a hurry, not relaxed, not happy
-lots of people w/ chronic
medical complaints
low score- laid back, not worried too much
Extraversion
high score- outgoing, involved, affectionate

low score- reserved, more reflective, and quiet
Openness
interested in new things and the world, liberal

vs

being ok with how things are, like your routines, doesnt want to change, conservative
agreeableness
a measure of how easy you are to get along with
soft hearted, trusting, generous, lenient, good natured

vs

ruthlessness, suspiciousness, stinginess, antagonistic, irritability
Conscientousness
need to have the ability to keep going thru hard times

hard working, well organized, punctual, ambitious

vs

negligent, lazy, quitter, late, aimless
myelination in early adulthood causes
1. better judgement
2. better sense of who you are
3. better impulse control
Eriksonian Stages (in adulthood)
1. intimacy v isolation
2. generativity v stagnation
3. ego integrity v despair
intimacy v isolation in adulthood
dvlpt stable relationships
long lasting friendships
meaningful emotional attachments sustained thruout life
generativity v stagnation
classic midlife crisis
what are you going to do with your life
ego integ v despair
think about what your life has been
can occur at multiple points
earlier if you have a life threatening illness
want to keep life meaningfull
factors influencing adjustment in adulthood
abilities, traits, and attitudes
your outlook on life is impt

ability to mourn
Key to successful aging
keeping your allostatic load low
Physiological markers of allostatic load
Primary- urinary cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline
low epi/NE is good, high DHEA-S is also good

Secondary-conseq of primary markers
wt, BP, waist:hip, chol, glycosylated Hb
Social Factors mediate biological processes
QUALITY of relationship w/ significant other
other social resources
staying active phys/socially
continued employment
Psychological resources
moderate biolog variables and
*Improve psych fxn with age

1. ability to cope w/ stress
2. positive attitude
3. interest in learning
4. lifestyle