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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
providing what is needed for instruction for students with special needs or ELL students by adapting or adjusting, such as by using different instructional approaches and strategies.
when a cultural group accepts and takes on the cultural norms of another cultural group.
additive approach
(to bilingualism) the view-point that acquisition of a second language is positive and that it does not necessitate forfeiting the first language.
the process by which a minority group becomes a part of the majority group, changing itself and changing the group in power, too.
authenic assessments
assessments conducted in real-life settings or simulationms that are close to real life.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
social, conversational language.
comfort and facility in two languages such that individuals are users of formal and informal aspects of both languages.
class structure
defined in terms of income (low, medium, high).
Cognitie Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
academic, abstract language that normally takes from 5 to 7 years to acquire when learning a new language.
critical pedagogy
an approach in which students learn to "question the questions," to seek their own answers, and to examine all areas critically when developing decision-making and social-action skills.
cultural relativism
the ability to view a culture as if you were a member of that culture.
perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors acquired drom families and those around us; usually a function of "exposure" or socialization.
Digital Divide
difference between the "haves" and the "have-nots" in access to technologyh resources.
disability group
defines the identity of aperson who has lost or experienced reduced function of a certain body part or organ; also includes physical, cognitive, and emotional functions.
decifit model
viewing individuals who are not of one's own culture as deficient and generalizing this negative perception to all behaviors that are particular to that individual's culture.
the use of negative responses or that absence of positive responses that denies success based on prejudiced or prejudicial outlooks, actions, or treatment.
a variety of cultures, viewpoints, tradtions, values, and needs of students in public education within the framework of American democratic
dominant culture
mainstream culture, often commanding, controlling, or prevailing over all other cultures.
English Language Learners (ELLS)
(formally referred to as LEP, or Limited English Proficient) those learning English as their second language.
the goal of all education; encouraging full participation in decision making, encouraging and teaching self-advocacy for success, building confidence, inviting choice making, and giving credence to individual opinions.
justice according to natural law or right; freedom from bias or favoritism.
a national heritage as well as a distinct set of customs, language system, beliefs and values, indigenous family traditions, and ceremonies.
a view of reality from one's own ehnic perspective alone and, possibility, a belief that this view is superior.
attributes that make a student different from most others in the area of learning; including cognitive, physical, and socioemotional differences (for example, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and giftedness.)
feminization of poverty
a large segment of the population below the poverty line line that consists of female-headed households and their children.
Funds of Knowledge
benefits from knowledge and experiences of students and their families to potentially enhance school-related activities and practice.
gender bias
pertaining to preferences or preferential treatment by teachers toward males or females.
gender equity
nonpreferential treatment of males and females.
Gifted and Talented
students with identified special talents and abilities who receive special instructions.
the challenge a person experiences due to a disability.
the notion that students with disability should be taught with their nondisabled peers in schools that are part of their community.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
developed for students with exceptionalities, with input from the parent, the classroom teacher, administration, specialists, and the student (when appropriate), to identify special needs; an IEP must be followed by law.
Individualized Transition Plan (ITP)
developed for students with exceptionalities who are 16 years old or older, with input from from student, parent, classroom teacher, administrator, and specialists, to identify post secondary schools.
involuntary immigrants
those whose families had no choice in coming to the United States; for example, the Africans brought as slaves prior to the Civil War.
language acquisition
the natural, gradual acquisition of language based on receiving and understanding messages, building a listening (receptive) vocabulary first, and slowly attempting verbal production of the language in a supportive environment.
learned helplessness
the lackof belief that our actions will lead to success due to expectations of failure and even acceptance of failure.
least restrictive environment (LRE)
placing students with exceptionalities in settings that allow them to function to their maximum capabilities with the maximum possible placement in a regular classroom.
mainstream culture
see dominant culture
melting pot analogy
people from different cultures and backgrounds forging a new culture and, in the process, losing their original cultural identity.
migrant workers
students who spend a few months in one school and then in another as they follow the migratory patterns of the agricultural industry.
term that usually refers to an ethnic, racial, or underrepresented group that is not the majority.
changes made in instruction and assessment in response to student needs; frequently used for students with disabilities and developed by an ARD (Admission, Review, and Dismissal) committee.
fluency, use, and understanding of only one language.
expected behaviors usually defined within the context of a culture; what is accepted as normal behavior within a specific group.
when a minority group retains its cultural norms and does not assimilate into the dominant or majority culture, yet possesses equal status in that majority culture.
Public Law 94-112
provides for a free and appropriate education, nondiscrimatory evaluatio, and an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all students with disabilities; later reauthorized as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
refers to human groups according to their physical taits and characteristics; different and often conflicting typologies exist because human groups in modern societies are highly mixed.
salad bowl analogy
people of different cultures forming a society but retaining their individual cultural identities.
use of limited aspects of a single language or of two or more languages; for example, students may speak their native language well, but may not write or read it well.
socioeconomic class
a composite of occupation, educational attainment, and income.
standardized tests
establish the same content, scoring, testing conditions, and interpretation guidelines.
subtractive approach
(to bilingualism) the view-point that acquisition of the second language (in this case, English) is most successful when the development of the first language is forfeited.