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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ingredients of Paint
1. Pigments
2. Binders
3. Liquids
4. Additives
As a rule of thumb, the ______ the amount of pigment and binder the ____ quality the paint.
higher
better
pigments provide
color and coverage
binder
holds the pigment together and provide a tough finish which adheres well to the surface
liquids provide
desired consistency
additives
are ingredients which provide specific paint properties, for example, preservatives to keep the paint fresh.
benefits of high quality paint
1. better coverage
2. easier to apply, smoother appearance
3. Superior durability and protection
4. Easier to clean
5. Lasting color
6. Other - "Block Resistance", Mildew Resistance", & Dirt Pick-up resistance
4 steps to success in interior &/or exterior paint job
1. Prepare the surface
2. Choose quality tools
3. Select the right paint
4. Consider the conditions
interior high quality paints have these qualities:
They resist stains, are washable and easy to keep clean
They go on smoothly and evenly
They tend to cover better
They're more durable
exterior high quality paints have these qualities:
They go on smoothly and evenly
They tend to cover better
They resist cracking and flaking
They deter dirt pick up and resist mould growth
They keep their colour for longer
They adhere better to the surface and are more durable
They go on smoothly and evenly
They tend to cover better
They resist cracking and flaking
They deter dirt pick up and resist mould growth
They keep their colour for longer
They adhere better to the surface and are more durable
interior and exterior problem solver:

BLISTERING
BLISTERING:
Bubbles resulting from localised loss of adhesion, and lifting of the paint film from the underlying surface.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Applying solvent-based paint over a damp or wet surface.

SOLUTION:
• If blisters do not go all the way down to the substrate: Remove blisters by scraping, and sanding, and repaint with a quality acrylic water-based interior paint.
INTERIOR PROBLEM SOLVER:

BLOCKING
BLOCKING:
Undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together (e.g., a door sticking to the jamb).

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Not allowing sufficient dry time for the coating before closing doors or windows.

SOLUTION:
• Use top quality satin or gloss acrylic water-based paint. Low quality water-based paints can have poor block resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Follow paint label instructions regarding dry times.
EXTERIOR PROBLEM SOLVER:

CROCODILING
CROCODILING:
Patterned cracking in the surface of the paint film resembling the regular scales of a crocodile.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Application of an extremely hard, rigid coating, like a solvent-based enamel, over a more flexible coating, like a water-based primer.
SOLUTION:
• Old paint should be completely removed by scraping and sanding the surface; The surface should be primed with high quality water-based or solvent-based primer, then painted with two coats of a top quality exterior water-based paint.
EXTERIOR PROBLEM SOLVER:

DIRT PICK UP (most common problem)
DIRT PICKUP:
Accumulation of dirt, dust particles and/or other debris on the paint film; may resemble fungus or algae.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Use of a low quality paint, especially lower grades of satin types.

• Air pollution, car exhaust fumes and flying dust collecting on houses.

SOLUTION:
• Wash off all surface dirt before priming and painting, using a scrub brush and detergent solution, followed by a thorough rinse. Heavier dirt accumulations may require the use of a power washer. While dirt pickup can't be eliminated entirely, top quality exterior water-based paints typically offer superior dirt pickup resistance and washability. Also, higher gloss paints are more resistant to dirt pickup than matt paints, which are more porous and can more easily entrap dirt.
BOTH INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR PROBLEM SOLVER:

CRACKING/FLAKING
CRACKING / FLAKING:
The splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat, which will lead to complete failure of the paint. Early on, the problem appears as hairline cracks; later, flaking of paint chips occurs.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Use of a lower quality paint that has inadequate adhesion and flexibility.

• Overthinning the paint or spreading it too thin.

SOLUTION:
• It may be possible to correct cracking that does not go down to the substrate by removing the loose or flaking paint with a scraper or wire brush, sanding to feather the edges, priming any bare spots and repainting.
BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL PAINT PROBLEM SOLVER:

LAPPING
LAPPING:
Appearance of a denser colour or higher gloss where wet and dry layers overlap during paint application.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Failure to maintain a "wet edge" when applying paint.

SOLUTION:
• Maintain a wet edge when painting by applying paint toward the unpainted area and then back into the just painted surface. This technique (brushing from "wet to dry" rather than vice versa) will produce a smooth uniform appearance. It is also wise to minimise the area being painted, and plan for interruptions at a natural break, such as a window, door or corner (especially important when applying stain to bare wood). Solvent-based paints generally have superior wet edge properties.
EXTERIOR PAINT PROBLEM SOLVER:

EFFLORESCENCE / MOTTLING:
EFFLORESCENCE / MOTTLING:
Crusty, white salt deposits, leached from mortar or masonry as water passes through it.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Failure to adequately prepare surface by removing all previous efflorescence.

• Excess moisture escaping through the exterior masonry walls from behind.

SOLUTION:
• If excess moisture is the cause, eliminate the source by repairing the roof, cleaning out gutters and drainpipes, and sealing any cracks in the masonry with a high quality, water-based all-acrylic or siliconised acrylic sealant. If moist air is originating inside the building, consider installing vents or exhaust fans, especially in kitchen, bathroom and laundry areas. Remove the efflorescence and all other loose material with a wire brush, power brush or power washer; then thoroughly rinse the surface. Apply a quality water-based or solvent-based masonry sealer or primer, and allow it to dry completely; then apply a coat of top quality exterior house paint, masonry paint or elastomeric wall coating.
EXTERIOR PAINT PROBLEM SOLVER:

POOR ALKALI RESISTANCE:
POOR ALKALI RESISTANCE:
Colour loss and overall deterioration of paint film on fresh masonry.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Solvent-based paint or water-based paint (vinyl acetate copolymers type) was applied to new masonry that has not cured for a full year. Fresh masonry is likely to contain lime which is very alkaline. Until the lime has a chance to react with carbon dioxide from the air, the alkalinity of the masonry remains so high that it can attack the integrity of the paint film.

SOLUTION:
• Allow masonry surfaces to cure for at least 30 days, and ideally for a full year, before painting. If this is not possible, the painter should apply a quality, alkali-resistance sealer or water-based primer, followed by a top quality pure acrylic exterior water-based paint. The acrylic binder in these paints resists alkali attack.
BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL PAINT PROBLEM SOLVER:

PICTURE FRAMING:
PICTURE FRAMING:
An effect of non uniform colour that can appear when a wall is painted with a roller, but is brushed at the corners, architraves and cornices. The brushed areas generally appear darker, resembling the "frame" of a "picture". Also, sprayed areas may be darker than neighbouring sections that are brushed or rolled. Picture framing can also refer to sheen effects.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Usually a hiding (coverage) effect. Brushing will generally result in lower spread rates than rolling, producing a thicker film and more hiding.

SOLUTION:
• Make sure that spread rates with brushes and rollers are similar. Don't cut in the entire room before roller coating. Work in smaller sections of the room to maintain a "wet edge." With tinted paints, be sure the correct colourant-base combinations are used.
EXTERIOR PAINT PROBLEMS:

NAILHEAD RUSTING
NAILHEAD RUSTING:
Reddish-brown stains and spots on the paint surface.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Non-galvanised iron nails have begun to rust, causing bleed-through to the top coat.

• Non-galvanised iron nails have not been countersunk and filled over.

• Galvanised nailheads have begun to rust after sanding or excessive weathering.

SOLUTION:
• When painting new exterior construction where non-galvanised nails have been used, it is advisable to first countersink the nailheads, then seal them with a top quality, water-based all-acrylic or siliconised acrylic sealant. Each nailhead area should be spot primed, then painted with a quality water-based coating. When repainting exteriors where nailhead rusting has occurred, wash off rust stains, sand the nailheads, then follow the same surface preparation procedures as for new construction.
INTERIOR PAINT PROBLEMS:

CHALKING
CHALKING:
Formation of fine powder on the surface of the paint film during weathering which can cause colour fading. Although some degree of chalking is a normal, desirable way for a paint film to wear, excessive film erosion can result from heavy chalking.

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
• Use of a low-grade, highly pigmented paint.

• Use of an interior paint for an outdoor application.

SOLUTION:
• First, remove as much of the chalk residue as possible, scrubbing with a stiff bristle brush (or wire brush on masonry) and then rinse thoroughly; or use power washing equipment. Check for any remaining chalk by running a hand over the surface after it dries. If noticeable chalk is still present, apply a quality solvent-based or acrylic water-based primer (or comparable sealer for masonry), then repaint with a quality exterior coating; if little or no chalk remains and the old paint is sound, no priming is necessary.