Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the difference between deoxyribose and ribose?
Replacement of the hydroxyl group on the 2' carbon with a hydrogen atom
Generic purine.
What is this molecule?
Generic pyrimidine.
What is this molecule?
What is this molecule?
What is this molecule?
What is this molecule?
What is this molecule?
What is this molecule?
What is the difference between thymine and uracil?
Thymine has an extra methyl group in place of a hydrogen.
What is this molecule?
What is an anomeric carbon?
The anomeric carbon is the location of the glycosidic bond.
How are carbons numbered in a nucleoside?
The carbon and nitrogen participating in the glycosidic bond are both 1'.
What is a generic description of all of the nitrogenous bases?
Heterocyclic aromatic bases
A nucleoside.
What is this molecule?
What is a nucleoside?
A nitrogenous base bonded to a sugar.
What are the names of the nucleosides?
Cytodine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine.
Phosphoester bond.
What type of bond is this?
How are phosphate groups labeled in a NTP?
Phosphates are labeled using Greek letters beginning at the 5' end of the sugar.
Pyrophosphate bond.
What type of bond is this?
What is ATP used for?
General metabolism.
What is GTP used for?
Protein synthesis.
What is CTP used for?
Phospholipid biosynthesis.
What is UTP used for?
Carbohydrate biosynthesis.
Phosphodiester bonds.
What type of bonds are these?
Linking sugars in a RNA or DNA backbone.
Where would you find these types of bonds?
In which direction are bases generally listed?
5' to 3'.
How many hydrogen bonds do adenine and thymine form?
How many bonds to cytosine and guanine form?
The minor groove.
What is A called?
The major groove.
What is B called?
35.7 A
What is the measurement of the area marked "C" (full turn of DNA)?
20 A
What is the measurement of the area marked "D" (diameter of DNA)?
What is the twist angle of DNA?
34.3 degrees per turn.
What is the number of base pairs per turn of a molecule of DNA?
10.5 bp per turn
What are the major forces stabilizing nucleic acid helices?
Hydrophobic effects (non-polar bases forced to center, polar sugar-phosphates outward) and base stacking interactions (bases stacked at Van der Waals contact distance).
What factors affect helix stability?
Hydrophobic effects (base non-polar/backbone polar), base stacking (Van der Waals), hydrogen bonds (purine/pyrimidine), ionic interactions (cations shield neg. charged phosphate groups), sugar phosphate chain constraints (angles of backbone).