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62 Cards in this Set

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What are some risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia?
PCOS, older than 40, early menarche, nulliparity, obesity

PRE-MALIGNANT
Number 1 invasive CA of female genital tract?
Endometrial carcinoma
HPV viruses associated with CIN?
16,18 30s40s50s
Typical causes of cervicitis?
gardenerella, trichomonas, candida, chlamydia
HPV causes CIN to be pre-cancerous by...
inhibiting p53, and RB
What stage of CIN is considered in situ
III
what is the pathogenesis of PCOS
too much LH, stimulates thecas to produce more androenstedione, peripherally this is converted to estrone....this causes negative feedback on FSH, so follicular development is arrested
endometriosis is caused by...
retrograde flow of endometrial tissues through fallopian tubes into peritoneal cavity
#1 site for for endometriosis
ovary
chocolate cysts" appear in?
endometriosis
most common tumor in women
uterine leiomyoma (fibroids)
whorled pattern of smooth muscle bundles seen on biopsy is seen in...
uterine leiomyoma
if you see uterus larger than expected and very high beta HCG you should think
hydatidiform mole
choriocarcinoma is a neoplasm consisting of?
trophoblastic cells
"lumpy bumpy breast"
fibrocystic change
fibroadenoma is msot common in
young women
phylloides tumor is more common in
older women >60
bloody or serous nipple discharge and composed of ductal epithelial cells
intraductal papilloma
what are the 5 types of DCIS
comedocarcinoma
solid
cribiform
papillary
micropapillary
most common breast CA
invasive ductal carcinoma
"scirrhous (hard), peau de orange, nipple retraction"
invasive ductal carcinoma
what type of breast cancer never forms calcifications or masses
lobular carcinoma \
lobular carcinoma is bilateral or unilateral
bilateral
medullary carcinoma is often associated with
BRCA1
a distortion of the breast without discrete density
lobular carcinoma
most common breast disease associated with calcification
DCIS
glossitis associated with what vit deficiencies?
b2 riboflavin
b12 cobalamin
drying and scaling and fissuring at corners of lips associated with
b2 riboflavin defiency
strawberry tongue associated with
scarlet fever
ulceration on buccal mucosa, first sign of
measles
zenkers diverticula occur where
above UES
acute erosive gastritis, ulcers in as little as 48 hrs can be caused by
excessive sympathetic stimulation...form severe bruns(curlings ulcer) and head trauma (cushings ulcer)
type A gastritis affects what region of stomach
fundus...autoimmune
chronic type A gastritis results in
pernicious anemia (ab against intrinsic factor and parietal cells) and achlorhydria
type A gastritis associated with
hashimotos, addisons, vitligo
menetriers disease
mucosal hypertrohpy, concomitant atrophy of glands
most common type of colonic polyps
hyperplastic polyps
pseudopolyps assocaited with
IBD...inflamed regenerating tissue surrounded by ulceration
what type of polyps have the highest risk for malignancy?
adenomatous polyps of the villous adenoma type (greater than 4 cm)
villous adenoma polyps cause what three things
gross rectal bleeding, hypokalemia, hypoproteinemia
zenkers diverticula occur where
above UES
acute erosive gastritis, ulcers in as little as 48 hrs can be caused by
excessive sympathetic stimulation...form severe bruns(curlings ulcer) and head trauma (cushings ulcer)
type A gastritis affects what region of stomach
fundus...autoimmune
chronic type A gastritis results in
pernicious anemia (ab against intrinsic factor and parietal cells) and achlorhydria
type A gastritis associated with
hashimotos, addisons, vitligo
menetriers disease
mucosal hypertrohpy, concomitant atrophy of glands
most common type of colonic polyps
hyperplastic polyps
pseudopolyps assocaited with
IBD...inflamed regenerating tissue surrounded by ulceration (ulcerative colitis)
what type of polyps have the highest risk for malignancy?
adenomatous polyps of the villous adenoma type (greater than 4 cm)
villous adenoma polyps cause what three things
gross rectal bleeding, hypokalemia, hypoproteinemia
FAP, what inheritance and what gene is it associated
autosomal dominant

APC tumor suppressor gene
Garnder's syndrome
form of FAP
+benign tumors of mandible, epidermal cysts, risk for abnormal dentition

100% risk of polyps turning into CA
Turcot's syndrome
form of FAP

+malignant brain tumors, high rsik for colon cancer
lynch syndome due to
defective DNA mismatch repair genes

AD

cancer doesn't come from adenomatous polyps
sites of metastesis for colon cancer
liver and lungs
SX of diverticulitis
LLQ pain, fever, elevated neutrophils, diarrhea, no bleeding!
does diverticulosis cause bleeding
yes, different from diverticulitis
crohn's has more or less bleeding than UC
less bleeding more pain,
what is transmural, crohns or UC
crohns!
etiologic agent of whipples disease
tropheryma whippellii (type of actinomyces)
biopsy findings in whipples disease
PAS+ macrophages, due to actinomyces (gram-positive)
most common type of gallstone is made out of what
cholesterol