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20 Cards in this Set

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What are 6 anxiety disorders?
1. PTST

2. OCD

3. Panic Disorder

4. Specific Phobia

5. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)

6. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
What is the utility of psychiatiric neuroimaging?
Useful for identifying average neural differences between groups of individuals with a specific disorder and without that disorder

Not for the individual though
What is a phobia?
excessive or unreasonable fears of specific objects and/or situations
A social phobia is characterized by what?
Fear of being in social situations in which one will be embarrassed or humiliated
How is social phobia explained in an evolutionary context?
In the EEA, if you got cut off/excluded you died
What are the cognitive variable in terms of social phobia?
Negative thought processes that reinforce the phobia.

Ex: thinking public speaking went worse than it did
Hyperactivity is seen in which 2 brain areas in social phobia?
The insula and Amygdala
What are the 2 (paradoxycal) effects of Negazodone T(x) for social anxiety disorder?
1. Increases the insula, middle frontal gyrus, ACC, and hypocampal activites

2. Decreases in dorsolateral and medial PFC and Dorsal ACC
What 2 areas are involved in cognitive "self-reference"?
Medial PFC

Dorsal ACC
What are 2 characteristics of panic disorder?
1. Persistent unexpected panic attacks

2. Fear of other attacks and/or concerns about implications
What is agoraphobia?
Fear/Anxiety of situation where it is difficult/embarrassing to escape
What are interoceptive fears?
Fear of the fear response itself
What are 3 areas implicated in panic disorder?
1. Insula

2. Anterior Cingulate

3. Periaqueductal Grey matter (has role in defensive behavior)
What are the 2 main treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia?
1. Medications

2. CBT
What are 2 neural changes seen following CBT for panic disorder?
1. Decreased activity in hippocampus, ACC, cerebellum, and pons

2. Increased activity in medial PFC
What are the 2 general characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder?
1. Excessive and uncontrollable worry ( >6 months)

2. Additional symptoms (sleep, muscle tension, concentration problems)
What are 3 biological risk factors for GAD?
1. Genetic factors (related to neuroticism and depression)

2. Functional Deficiency of GABA

3. Neurobiological differences between anxiety and panic
Patients with GAD may use what to dampen emotional experience?
Cognitive Strategy (worry):

ex terror about the kids getting hurt, so worry about everything to protect them
In GAD what level of connectivity is seen between amygdala and ACC/insula?
Dampened connectivity
In GAD, what level of connectivity is seen between amygdala and DLPFC?
Great connectivity