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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Morphine Pharmacokinetics
- 1 minute via IV

- 3-4 hours

- Glucuronide conjugation in the liver

- 90% excreted as the glucuronide in urine within 24 hours. Can be detected for several days
Supraspinal Analgesia
-3 neuroanatomic sites
-Descending pain control
- mu opiod receptor

- peri-aquaductal grey, thalamus, and somatic sensory cortex

- PAG--> Raphe Nucleus--> Dorsal Horn
Spinal Analgesia
-anatomic site
- delta and kappa opioid receptors

- dorsal horn
-3 neuroanatomic sites
- mu opioid receptor

-Ventral Tegmental Area dompaminergic neurons project to the Nucleus Accumbens and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex
Opioid effect sites
-Respiratory Depression
-Pupil constriction
-Peripheral vasodilation
-area postrema


-brainstem (both d/l-isomers!)

-local gut ganglia

-CN III Nucleus

-CN X nucleus
Endogenous Opioid ligands
-Name the 3
-Which receptor subtypes do they bind preferentially
-Mu and delta preferentially bind enkephalin and endorphin

-Kappa preferentially binds dynorphin
Mechanisms after a MOR agonist binds
1. Effect on membrane polarity
2. Intracellular changes
1. K+ influx leads to hyperpolarization

2. Gi alpha--| adenyl cyclase--> dec. cAMP--> dec. PKA--> dec. CREB-PO4
Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonists
1. Short Acting
2. Long Acting
1. Nalaxone: treat opioid overdose

2. Naltrexone: treat opioid and alcohol dependence
Symptoms of Opioid Withdrawal
1. "Mental"
2. GI
3. Eyes
Opposite of Opioid use!

1. Anxiety, agitation and CRAVING

2. Diarrhea

3. Pupillary dilation